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11 Hindu sages who did remarkable work in the field of Science

Sushrut

Hinduism had many scholar and brilliant sages who gave much knowledge of science, Mathematics, Astronomy, cosmoogy, Medicines etc from their work. Here is the list of 11 Hindu sages who did remarkable work in the field of Science, in no perticular order.

1) Aryabhatta

Aryabhatta
Aryabhatta

Aryabhata was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. He is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy.
His major work, Aryabhatiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry, and spherical trigonometry. It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-of-power series, and a table of sines.
He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses.
2) Bharadwaj

Rishi Bharadwaj
Rishi Bharadwaj

Acharya Bharadwaj is the writer and founder Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the ” Yantra Sarvasva ” which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines.

Also read:
Was first discovered by Hindus Ep IV : Time dilation

3) Baudhayana

Rishi Baudhayana
Rishi Baudhayana

Baudhayana was the author of the Baudhayana sutras, which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc.

He was the author of the earliest Sulba Sutra—appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars—called the Baudhayana Sulbasutra. These are notable from the point of view of mathematics, for containing several important mathematical results, including giving a value of pi to some degree of precision, and stating a version of what is now known as the Pythagorean theorem.

Sequences associated with primitive Pythagorean triples have been named Baudhayana sequences. These sequences have been used in cryptography as random sequences and for the generation of keys.

Also read:
Was first discovered by Hindus Ep I : Pythagoras theorem

4) Bhaskaracharya

Rishi Bhaskaracharya
Rishi Bhaskaracharya

Bhaskaracharya was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. his works represent a significant contribution to mathematical and astronomical knowledge in the 12th century.  His main work Siddhanta Shiromani deal with arithmetic, algebra, mathematics of the planets, and spheres respectively.
Bhaskaracharya’s work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by over half a millennium. He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhaskaracharya was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.

Also read:
Was first discovered by Hindus Ep III : Value of Pi

5) Charak

Rishi Charak
Rishi Charak

Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the ” Charak Samhita “, is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagoneses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe , Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the ” Charak Samhita ” he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurvedal. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
6) Kanad

Rishi Kanada
Rishi Kanada

Kanada was a Hindu sage and philosopher who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika and authored the text Vaisheshika Sutra.

His primary area of study was Rasavadam, considered to be a type of alchemy. He is said to have believed that all living beings are composed of five elements: water, fire, earth, air, Aether (classical element). Vegetables have only water, insects have water and fire, birds have water, fire, earth and air, and Humans, the top of the creation, have ether—the sense of discrimination (time, space, mind) are one.

He says, “Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.” His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world. Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other.
7) Kapil

Rishi Kapil
Rishi Kapil

He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers – incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology.
8) Nagarjuna

Rishi Nagarjuna
Rishi Nagarjuna

Nagarjna’s dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like ” Ras Ratnakar ,” “Rashrudaya” and “Rasendramangal” are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Nagarjuna had also said to have discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold.
9) Patanjali  

Patanjali
Patanjali

patanjali prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali ‘s 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna.
10) Sushrut

Sushrut
Sushrut

Sushruta is an ancient Indian surgeon commonly attributed to as the author of the treatise Sushruta Samhita. He is dubbed as the “founding father of surgery” and the Sushrut Samhita is identified as one of the best and outstanding commentary on Medical Science of Surgery.

Sushruta in his book Sushruta Samhita discusses surgical techniques of making incisions, probing, extraction of foreign bodies, alkali and thermal cauterization, tooth extraction, excisions, and trocars for draining abscess, draining hydrocele and ascitic fluid, the removal of the prostate gland, urethral stricture dilatation, vesiculolithotomy, hernia surgery, caesarian section, management of haemorrhoids, fistulae, laparotomy and management of intestinal obstruction, perforated intestines, and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum and the principles of fracture management, viz., traction, manipulation, appositions and stabilization including some measures of rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetics. It enumerates six types of dislocations, twelve varieties of fractures, and classification of the bones and their reaction to the injuries, and gives a classification of eye diseases including cataract surgery.
11) Varahmihir

Varahmihir
Varahmihir

Varamihir is a renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir’ s book “panchsiddhant” holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the ” Bruhad Samhita ” and ” Bruhad Jatak ,” he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees.

Also read:
Was first discovered by Hindus Ep II : Sphericity of Earth

Credits: Photo credits to the owners, Google Images and the Original Artists.

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The Upanishads are ancient Hindu scriptures that contain philosophical and spiritual teachings on a wide range of topics. They are considered to be some of the foundational texts of Hinduism and have had a significant influence on the religion. In this blog post, we will compare the Upanishads with other ancient spiritual texts.

One way in which the Upanishads can be compared with other ancient spiritual texts is in terms of their historical context. The Upanishads are part of the Vedas, a collection of ancient Hindu scriptures that are thought to date back to the 8th century BCE or earlier. They are considered to be among the oldest sacred texts in the world. Other ancient spiritual texts that are similar in terms of their historical context include the Tao Te Ching and the Analects of Confucius, both of which are ancient Chinese texts that are thought to date back to the 6th century BCE.

The Upanishads are considered to be the crown jewel of the Vedas and are seen as the most important and influential texts of the collection. They contain teachings on the nature of the self, the nature of the universe, and the nature of the ultimate reality. They explore the relationship between the individual self and the ultimate reality, and offer insights into the nature of consciousness and the role of the individual in the cosmos. The Upanishads are meant to be studied and discussed in the context of a guru-student relationship and are seen as a source of wisdom and insight into the nature of reality and the human condition.

Another way to compare the Upanishads with other ancient spiritual texts is in terms of their content and themes. The Upanishads contain philosophical and spiritual teachings that are intended to help people understand the nature of reality and their place in the world. They explore a wide range of topics, including the nature of the self, the nature of the universe, and the nature of the ultimate reality. Other ancient spiritual texts that explore similar themes include the Bhagavad Gita and the Tao Te Ching. The Bhagavad Gita is a Hindu text that contains teachings on the nature of the self and the ultimate reality, and the Tao Te Ching is a Chinese text that contains teachings on the nature of the universe and the role of the individual in the cosmos.

A third way to compare the Upanishads with other ancient spiritual texts is in terms of their influence and popularity. The Upanishads have had a significant influence on Hindu thought and have also been widely studied and revered in other religious and philosophical traditions. They are seen as a source of wisdom and insight into the nature of reality and the human condition. Other ancient spiritual texts that have had a similar level of influence and popularity include the Bhagavad Gita and the Tao Te Ching. These texts have also been widely studied and revered in various religious and philosophical traditions and are seen as sources of wisdom and insight.

Overall, the Upanishads are an important and influential ancient spiritual text that can be compared with other ancient spiritual texts in terms of their historical context, content and themes, and influence and popularity. They offer a rich source of spiritual and philosophical teachings that continue to be studied and revered by people around the world.

The Upanishads are ancient Hindu scriptures that are considered to be some of the foundational texts of Hinduism. They are part of the Vedas, a collection of ancient religious texts that form the basis of Hinduism. The Upanishads are written in Sanskrit and are thought to date back to the 8th century BCE or earlier. They are considered to be among the oldest sacred texts in the world and have had a significant influence on Hindu thought.

The word “Upanishad” means “sitting down near,” and refers to the practice of sitting near a spiritual teacher to receive instruction. The Upanishads are a collection of texts that contain the teachings of various spiritual masters. They are meant to be studied and discussed in the context of a guru-student relationship.

There are many different Upanishads, and they are divided into two categories: the older, “primary” Upanishads, and the later, “secondary” Upanishads.

The primary Upanishads are considered to be more foundational and are thought to contain the essence of the Vedas. There are ten primary Upanishads, and they are:

  1. Isha Upanishad
  2. Kena Upanishad
  3. Katha Upanishad
  4. Prashna Upanishad
  5. Mundaka Upanishad
  6. Mandukya Upanishad
  7. Taittiriya Upanishad
  8. Aitareya Upanishad
  9. Chandogya Upanishad
  10. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

The secondary Upanishads are more diverse in nature and cover a wider range of topics. There are many different secondary Upanishads, and they include texts such as

  1. Hamsa Upanishad
  2. Rudra Upanishad
  3. Mahanarayana Upanishad
  4. Paramahamsa Upanishad
  5. Narasimha Tapaniya Upanishad
  6. Advaya Taraka Upanishad
  7. Jabala Darsana Upanishad
  8. Darshana Upanishad
  9. Yoga-Kundalini Upanishad
  10. Yoga-Tattva Upanishad

These are just a few examples, and there are many other secondary Upanishads

The Upanishads contain philosophical and spiritual teachings that are intended to help people understand the nature of reality and their place in the world. They explore a wide range of topics, including the nature of the self, the nature of the universe, and the nature of the ultimate reality.

One of the key ideas found in the Upanishads is the concept of Brahman. Brahman is the ultimate reality and is seen as the source and sustenance of all things. It is described as being eternal, unchanging, and all-pervading. According to the Upanishads, the ultimate goal of human life is to realize the unity of the individual self (atman) with Brahman. This realization is known as moksha, or liberation.

Here are some examples of Sanskrit text from the Upanishads:

  1. “Aham brahmaasmi.” (From the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad) This phrase translates to “I am Brahman,” and reflects the belief that the individual self is ultimately one with the ultimate reality.
  2. “Tat tvam asi.” (From the Chandogya Upanishad) This phrase translates to “Thou art that,” and is similar in meaning to the above phrase, emphasizing the unity of the individual self with the ultimate reality.
  3. “Ayam atma brahma.” (From the Mandukya Upanishad) This phrase translates to “This self is Brahman,” and reflects the belief that the true nature of the self is the same as the ultimate reality.
  4. “Sarvam khalvidam brahma.” (From the Chandogya Upanishad) This phrase translates to “All this is Brahman,” and reflects the belief that the ultimate reality is present in all things.
  5. “Isha vasyam idam sarvam.” (From the Isha Upanishad) This phrase translates to “All this is pervaded by the Lord,” and reflects the belief that the ultimate reality is the ultimate source and sustainer of all things.

The Upanishads also teach the concept of reincarnation, the belief that the soul is reborn into a new body after death. The form that the soul takes in its next life is believed to be determined by the actions and thoughts of the previous life, a concept known as karma. The goal of the Upanishadic tradition is to break the cycle of reincarnation and achieve liberation.

Yoga and meditation are also important practices in the Upanishadic tradition. These practices are seen as a way to quiet the mind and achieve a state of inner peace and clarity. They are also believed to help the individual realize the unity of the self with the ultimate reality.

The Upanishads have had a significant influence on Hindu thought and have also been widely studied and revered in other religious and philosophical traditions. They are seen as a source of wisdom and insight into the nature of reality and the human condition. The teachings of the Upanishads continue to be studied and practiced by Hindus today and are an important part of the Hindu tradition.

Introduction

What do we mean by Founder? When we say a founder, we mean to say that someone has brought into existence a new faith or formulated a set of religious beliefs, principles and practices which were not in existence before. That cannot happen with a faith such as Hinduism, which is considered eternal. According to the scriptures, Hinduism is the religion of not just humans. Even gods and demons practice it. Ishwar (Ishwara), the Lord of the universe, is its source. He also practices it. Hence, Hinduism is God’s Dharma, brought down to the earth, just as the sacred River Ganga, for the welfare of the humans.

Who is then the Founder of Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma)?

 Hinduism is not founded by a person or a prophet. Its source is God (Brahman) himself. Hence, it is considered an eternal religion (Sanatana dharma). Its first teachers were Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Brahma, the creator God revealed the secret knowledge of the Vedas to gods, humans and demons in the beginning of creation. He also imparted to them the secret knowledge of the Self, but due to their own limitations, they understood it in their own ways.

Vishnu is the preserver. He preserves the knowledge of Hinduism through countless manifestations, associated gods, aspects, saints and seers to ensure the order and regularity of the worlds. Through them, he also restores the lost knowledge of various Yogas or introduces new reforms. Further, whenever the Hindu Dharma declines beyond a point, he incarnates upon earth to restore it and revive its forgotten or lost teachings. Vishnu exemplifies the duties which humans are expected to perform upon earth in their individual capacity as householders within their spheres.

Shiva too plays an important role in upholding Hindu Dharma. As the destroyer, he removes the impurities and confusion that creeps into our sacred knowledge. He is also considered the universal teacher and the source of various art and dance forms (Lalitakalas), Yogas, vocations, sciences, farming, agriculture, alchemy, magic, healing, medicine, Tantra and so on.

Thus, like the mystic Ashvattha Tree which is mentioned in the Vedas, the roots of Hinduism are in heaven, and its branches are spread out on earth. Its core is divine knowledge, which governs the conduct of not only humans but also of the beings in other worlds with God acting as its creator, preserver, concealer, revealer and remover of obstacles. Its core philosophy (the shruti) is eternal, while it changing parts (smriti) keep changing according to the time and circumstances, and the progress of the world. Containing in itself the diversity of God’s creation, it remains open to all possibilities, modifications and future discoveries.

Also Read: Prajapatis – the 10 sons of Lord Brahma

Many other divinities such as Ganesha, Prajapati, Indra, Shakti, Narada, Saraswati and Lakshmi are also credited with the authorship of many scriptures. Apart from this, countless scholars, seers, sages, philosophers, gurus, ascetic movements and teacher traditions enriched Hinduism through their teachings, writings, commentaries, discourses and expositions. Thus, Hinduism is derived from many sources. Many of its beliefs and practices found their way into other religions, that either originated in India or interacted with it.

Since Hinduism has its roots in the eternal knowledge and its aims and purpose are closely aligned to those of God as the Creator of all, it is considered an eternal religion (Sanatana dharma). Hinduism may disappear from the face of the earth due to the impermanent nature of the world, but the sacred knowledge which forms its foundation will remain forever and keep manifesting in each cycle of creation under different names. It is also said that Hinduism has no founder and no missionary goals because people have to come to it either by providence (birth) or personal decision due to their spiritual readiness (past karma).

The name Hinduism, which is derived from the root word, “Sindhu” came into usage due to historical reasons. Hinduism as a conceptual entity did not exist until the British times. The word itself does not appear in literature until the 17th Century A.D. In medieval times, the Indian subcontinent was known as Hindustan or the land of Hindus. They were not all practising same faith, but different ones, which included Buddhism, Jainism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Brahmanism and several ascetic traditions, sects and sub sects.

The native traditions and the people who practiced Sanatana Dharma went by different names, but not as Hindus. During the British times, all the native faiths were grouped under the generic name, “Hinduism” to distinguish it from Islam and Christianity and to dispense with justice or settle local disputes, property and tax matters.

Subsequently, after the independence, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism were separated from it by enacting laws. Thus, the word Hinduism was born out of historical necessity and entered the constitutional laws of India through legislation.

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