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Shiv Tandav Stotra

Shiva idol | Maha Shivratri

Shiv Tandav stotra with english translation and its meaning.

Sanskrit:

जटाटवीगलज्जलप्रवाहपावितस्थले

गलेऽवलम्ब्य लम्बितां भुजङ्गतुङ्गमालिकाम् ।

डमड्डमड्डमड्डमन्निनादवड्डमर्वयं

चकार चण्डताण्डवं तनोतु नः शिवः शिवम् ॥१॥

English Translation:

Jatta tavi galaj jala pravaha pavita sthale

Gale valambya lambitaam bhujanga tunga malikaam |

Damadd damadd damadd daman ninaadavadd damar vayam

Chakaara chandda taandavam tanotu nah Shivah Shivam ||1||

Meaning:

1.1: From his huge matted hair like a forest, is pouring out and flowing down the sacred water of the river ganga, and making the ground holy; on that holy ground shiva is dancing his great taandava dance;

1.2: Supporting his neck and hanging down are the lofty serpents which are adorning his neck like lofty garlands,

1.3: His damaru is continuously emitting out the sound and filling the air all around,

1.4: Shiva performed such a passionate tandava; o my lord shiva, please extend the auspicious tandava dance within our beings also.

 

Sanskrit:

जटाकटाहसम्भ्रमभ्रमन्निलिम्पनिर्झरी_

विलोलवीचिवल्लरीविराजमानमूर्धनि ।

धगद्धगद्धगज्जलल्ललाटपट्टपावके

किशोरचन्द्रशेखरे रतिः प्रतिक्षणं मम ॥२॥

English Translation:

Jataa kattaha sambhrama bhraman nilimpa nirjhari

Vilola vichi vallarii viraajamaana murdhani |

Dhagad dhagad dhagaj jwalal lalatta patta paavake

Kishora chandra shekhare ratih pratikshanam mama ||2||

Meaning:

2.1: His huge matted hair are waving round and round; and whirling with it is the great River Ganga.

2.2: And the strands of his hair are like huge creepers are waving like king waves; His forehead is brilliantly wide

2.3: On the surface of that huge forehead is burning a blazing fire with the sound – dhagad,

dhagad, dhagad (referring to his third eye)

2.4: And a young crescent moon is shining on the peak of his head.

 

Sanskrit:

धराधरेन्द्रनन्दिनीविलासबन्धुबन्धुर

स्फुरद्दिगन्तसन्ततिप्रमोदमानमानसे ।

कृपाकटाक्षधोरणीनिरुद्धदुर्धरापदि

क्वचिद्दिगम्बरे मनो विनोदमेतु वस्तुनि ॥३॥

English Translation:

Dhara dharendra nandini vilasa bandhu bandhura

Sphurad diganta santati pramodamana maanase |

Krpa kataksha dhorani niruddha durdhara apadi

Kwachid digambare mano vinodametu vastuni ||3||

Meaning:

3.1: Now he is accompanied by the beautiful divine mother who is the supporter of the earth and the daughter of the mountain king; she is ever his companion in his various divine sports,

3.2: The entire horizon is shaking with the force of that tandava, and the subtle waves of the tandava is entering the atmosphere and raising waves of excessive joy.

3.3: That shiva, the flow of whose graceful side glance can restrain even the unrestrainable calamities.

3.4: Who is digambara, clothed with sky signifying he is ever-free and without any desire, sometimes in his mind materializes the wish to play the divine sports and dance.

 

Sanskrit:

जटाभुजङ्गपिङ्गलस्फुरत्फणामणिप्रभा

कदम्बकुङ्कुमद्रवप्रलिप्तदिग्वधूमुखे ।

मदान्धसिन्धुरस्फुरत्त्वगुत्तरीयमेदुरे

मनो विनोदमद्‍भुतं बिभर्तु भूतभर्तरि ॥४॥

English Translation:

Jataa bhujanga pingala sphurat phanaa mani prabha

Kadamba kungkuma drava pralipta digvadhu mukhe |

Mada andha sindhura sphurat tvag uttariya medure

Mano vinodam adbhutam bibhartu bhuta bhartari ||4||

Meaning:

4.1: The reddish serpents on his matted hairs with the lustre of red pearls on their hood are throbbing with their hoods raised.

4.2: Collectively the sky is appearing like the huge face of a bride adorned with that red saffron

4.3: His upper garment is flying in the breeze and shaking like the thick skin of an intoxicated elephant,

4.4: My mind is experiencing an extraordinary thrill in this divine sport; it is being carried away by the sustainer of all beings.

 

Sanskrit:

सहस्रलोचनप्रभृत्यशेषलेखशेखर_

प्रसूनधूलिधोरणी विधूसराङ्घ्रिपीठभूः ।

भुजङ्गराजमालया निबद्धजाटजूटकः

श्रियै चिराय जायतां चकोरबन्धुशेखरः ॥५॥

English Translation:

Sahasra lochana prabhrty ashesa lekha shekhara

Prasuna dhuli dhorani vidhusara anghri pittha bhuh |

Bhujanga raja maalaya nibaddha jatta juttakah

Shriyai ciraya Jaayatam chakora bandhu shekharah ||5||

Meaning:

5.1: Sahasra locana (means thousand eyes and refers to indra) and others forming an unending line of heads.

5.2: Are being graced by the dust produced by the dancing feet, the feet which has become dust-coloured by dancing on mother earth.

5.3: His matted hair is bound by the garlands of the king of serpents and.

5.4: The shining moon on top of his head which is a friend of the chakora birds who drinks moonlight is radiating the deep beauty and auspiciousness of shiva.

Shiva as Nataraja

Sanskrit:

ललाटचत्वरज्वलद्धनञ्जयस्फुलिङ्गभा_

निपीतपञ्चसायकं नमन्निलिम्पनायकम् ।

सुधामयूखलेखया विराजमानशेखरं

महाकपालिसम्पदेशिरोजटालमस्तु नः ॥६॥

English Translation:

Lalaata chatvara jvalad dhananjaya sphulinga bhaa
Nipita Pancha sayakam naman nilimpa nayakam |
Sudha mayukha lekhaya viraajamaana shekharam
Maha kapali sampade shiro jattalam astu nah ||6||

Meaning:

6.1: On the surface of his forehead is burning a spark of fire and spreading its lustre (referring to his third eye)

6.2: The fire which absorbed the five arrows (of kama deva) and made the chief god of kama bow down,

6.3: On the top of his head is shining the nectar-rayed-stroke of the crescent moon,

6.4: May we also receive a part of the wealth of the great kapali which is contained in his matted hair.

 

Sanskrit:

करालभालपट्टिकाधगद्‍धगद्‍धगज्ज्वलद्_

धनञ्जयाहुतीकृतप्रचण्डपञ्चसायके ।

धराधरेन्द्रनन्दिनीकुचाग्रचित्रपत्रक

प्रकल्पनैकशिल्पिनि त्रिलोचने रतिर्मम ॥७॥

English Translation:

Karala bhalla pattika dhagad dhagad dhagaj jvalad
Dhananjaya ahuti krta prachanda pancha Saayake |
Dharaa dharendra nandini kuchagra chitra patraka
Prakalpanai kashilpini trilochane ratirmama ||7||

Meaning:

7.1: The terrible surface of his forehead is burning with the sound – dhagad, dhagad, dhagad, dhagad – burning the

7.2: Terrible fire which performed the sacrifice of the mighty possessor of the five arrows (i.e. kama deva),

7.3: The footsteps of his great tandava dance is drawing various pictures on the bosom of the earth (signifying creation)

7.4: He is the one artist accompanied by shakti is one who creates. my mind is extremely delighted by this tandava of the three-eyed shiva.

 

Sanskrit:

नवीनमेघमण्डली निरुद्‍धदुर्धरस्फुरत्_

कुहूनिशीथिनीतमः प्रबन्धबद्धकन्धरः ।

निलिम्पनिर्झरीधरस्तनोतु कृत्तिसिन्धुरः

कलानिधानबन्धुरः श्रियं जगद्धुरंधरः ॥८॥

English Translation:

Navina megha mandali niruddha durdhara sphurat
Kuhu nishithini tamah prabandha baddha kandharah |
Nilimpa nirjhari dharas tanotu krti sindhurah
Kala nidhana bandhurah shriyam jagad dhurandharah ||8||

Meaning:

8.1: The Throb of the Great Tandava has Restrained the Unrestrainable Orb of the New Clouds and

8.2: Has Bound the Darkness of the Night of the New Moon around His Neck,

8.3: O the Bearer of the River Goddess Ganga, Wearer of the Elephant Hide, Please Extend the the Auspiciousness and Great Welfare

8.4: O the Container of the Curved Digit of the Moon, Bearer of the Universe, Please Extend the Sri associated with this Great Tandava.

 

Sanskrit:

प्रफुल्लनीलपङ्कजप्रपञ्चकालिमप्रभा_

वलम्बिकण्ठकन्दलीरुचिप्रबद्धकन्धरम् ।

स्मरच्छिदं पुरच्छिदं भवच्छिदं मखच्छिदं

गजच्छिदान्धकच्छिदं तमन्तकच्छिदं भजे ॥९॥

English Translation:

Praphula nila pangkaja prapancha kalima prabhaa_
Valambi kanttha kandali ruche prabaddha kandharam |
Smarach chidam purach chidam bhavach chidam makhach chidam
Gajach chidam andhakach chidam tam antakach chidam Bhaje ||9||

Meaning:

9.1: Halahal the black poison of the is appearing like a blooming blue lotus and

9.2: Resting within his throat like a girdle; which he himself has restrained by his own will,

9.3: I worship the destroyer of kaam deva (i.e. kama deva), the destroyer of tripurasuras, the destroyer of the delusion of the worldly existence, the destroyer of the daksha.

9.4: I worship the destroyer of gajasura, the destroyer of demon andhaka and I also worship the restrainer of yama; I worship my lord shiva.

 

Sanskrit:

अखर्वसर्वमङ्गलाकलाकदम्बमञ्जरी_

रसप्रवाहमाधुरीविजृम्भणामधुव्रतम् ।

स्मरान्तकं पुरान्तकं भवान्तकं मखान्तकं

गजान्तकान्धकान्तकं तमन्तकान्तकं भजे ॥१०॥

English Translation:

Akharva sarva mangala kala kadamba manjarii
Rasapravaaha maadhuri vijrmbhanaa madhu vratam |
Smara antakam pura antakam bhava antakam makha antakam
Gaja antaka andhaka antakam Tamantaka antakam Bhaje ||10||

Meaning:

10.1: He is the non-diminishing source of auspiciousness for the welfare of all, and the source of all arts which he manifests like a cluster of blossoms.

10.2: From his tandava dance is surging forth the nectar of sweetness in the form of arts expressing his sweet will,

10.3: I worship him who brought an end to kama, who brought an end to the tripurasuras,  who brings an end to the delusion of worldly existence who brought an end to the sacrifice (of daksha), …

10.4: I worship him who brought an end to gajasura, who brought an end to demon andhaka, and who restrained yama; I worship my lord shiva.

Sanskrit:

जयत्वदभ्रविभ्रमभ्रमद्‍भुजङ्गमश्वसद्_

विनिर्गमत्क्रमस्फुरत्करालभालहव्यवाट् ।

धिमिद्धिमिद्धिमिध्वनन्मृदङ्गतुङ्गमङ्गल_

ध्वनिक्रमप्रवर्तितप्रचण्डताण्डवः शिवः ॥११॥

English Translation:

Jayat vada bhra vibhrama bhramad bhujangama shvasad
Vinirgamat karma sphurat karala bhala havya vatt |
Dhimid dhimid dhimidhvanan mrdanga tunga mangala
Dhvani karma pravartita prachanda tandavah Shivah ||11||

Meaning:

11.1: His eyebrows are moving to and fro expressing his complete mastership over all the worlds; and his movements are rolling the serpents on his neck who are spewing out their hot breath

11.2: The third eye on his forehead which is like an altar for oblation is throbbing in succession and emitting fire,

11.3: The mridangam is incessantly sounding the auspicious beats of dhimid, dhimid, dhimid, dhimid

11.4: With that succession of beats which are rolling out, shiva is dancing his passionate tandava dance.

 

Sanskrit:

दृषद्विचित्रतल्पयोर्भुजङ्गमौक्तिकस्रजोर्_

गरिष्ठरत्नलोष्ठयोः सुहृद्विपक्षपक्षयोः ।

तृणारविन्दचक्षुषोः प्रजामहीमहेन्द्रयोः

समप्रवृत्तिकः कदा सदाशिवं भजाम्यहम् ॥१२॥

English Translation:

Drsadvichitra talpayor bhujanga mauktika srajor
Garistha ratna losthayoh suhrd vipaksa paksayoh |
Trnaaravinda chaksusoh prajaa mahi mahendrayoh
Sama pravrtikah kada sadaashivam Bhajamyham ||12||

 

Sanskrit:

कदा निलिम्पनिर्झरीनिकुञ्जकोटरे वसन्

विमुक्तदुर्मतिः सदा शिरःस्थमञ्जलिं वहन् ।

विमुक्तलोललोचनो ललामभाललग्नकः

शिवेति मन्त्रमुच्चरन्कदा सुखी भवाम्यहम् ॥१३॥

English Translation:

Kada nilimpa nirjhari nikunja kotare vasan
Vimukta durmatih sada shirahstham Anjalim vahan |
Vimukta lola locano lalama bhala lagnakah
Shiveti mantram ucharan kadaa Sukhi Bhavamy aham ||13||

Meaning:

13.1: When will i dwell in a cave within the dense woods by the side of the river goddess ganga and

13.2: Being free forever from sinful mental dispositions worship shiva keeping my hands on the forehead?

13.3: When will I be free from the rolling of the eyes (signifying lustful tendencies) and worship shiva applying the sacred mark on the forehead?

13.4: When will I be happy uttering the mantras of shiva?

 

Sanskrit:

इमं हि नित्यमेवमुक्तमुत्तमोत्तमं स्तवं

पठन्स्मरन्ब्रुवन्नरो विशुद्धिमेतिसंततम् ।

हरे गुरौ सुभक्तिमाशु याति नान्यथा गतिं

विमोहनं हि देहिनां सुशङ्करस्य चिन्तनम् ॥१४॥

English Translation:

Imam hi nityam evam uktam uttamottamam stavam
Patthan smaran bruvan naro vishuddhimeti santatam |
Hare gurau subhaktim aashu yaati na anyathaa gatim
Vimohanam hi dehinaam su shangkarasya chintanam ||14||

Meaning:

14.1: This greatest of the great hymn has been uttered;

14.2: Regularly reciting it and contemplate on shiva with purity of mind and in an uninterrupted manner and

14.3: With great devotion in hara, the guru, will quickly advance towards him; there is no other way or refuge,

14.4: The delusion of that person will be destroyed by deep meditation on shankara.

 

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Who Founded Hinduism? The Origin Of Hinduism and Sanatana Dharma-hindufaqs

Introduction

What do we mean by Founder? When we say a founder, we mean to say that someone has brought into existence a new faith or formulated a set of religious beliefs, principles and practices which were not in existence before. That cannot happen with a faith such as Hinduism, which is considered eternal. According to the scriptures, Hinduism is the religion of not just humans. Even gods and demons practice it. Ishwar (Ishwara), the Lord of the universe, is its source. He also practices it. Hence, Hinduism is God’s Dharma, brought down to the earth, just as the sacred River Ganga, for the welfare of the humans.

Who is then the Founder of Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma)?

 Hinduism is not founded by a person or a prophet. Its source is God (Brahman) himself. Hence, it is considered an eternal religion (Sanatana dharma). Its first teachers were Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Brahma, the creator God revealed the secret knowledge of the Vedas to gods, humans and demons in the beginning of creation. He also imparted to them the secret knowledge of the Self, but due to their own limitations, they understood it in their own ways.

Vishnu is the preserver. He preserves the knowledge of Hinduism through countless manifestations, associated gods, aspects, saints and seers to ensure the order and regularity of the worlds. Through them, he also restores the lost knowledge of various Yogas or introduces new reforms. Further, whenever the Hindu Dharma declines beyond a point, he incarnates upon earth to restore it and revive its forgotten or lost teachings. Vishnu exemplifies the duties which humans are expected to perform upon earth in their individual capacity as householders within their spheres.

Shiva too plays an important role in upholding Hindu Dharma. As the destroyer, he removes the impurities and confusion that creeps into our sacred knowledge. He is also considered the universal teacher and the source of various art and dance forms (Lalitakalas), Yogas, vocations, sciences, farming, agriculture, alchemy, magic, healing, medicine, Tantra and so on.

Thus, like the mystic Ashvattha Tree which is mentioned in the Vedas, the roots of Hinduism are in heaven, and its branches are spread out on earth. Its core is divine knowledge, which governs the conduct of not only humans but also of the beings in other worlds with God acting as its creator, preserver, concealer, revealer and remover of obstacles. Its core philosophy (the shruti) is eternal, while it changing parts (smriti) keep changing according to the time and circumstances, and the progress of the world. Containing in itself the diversity of God’s creation, it remains open to all possibilities, modifications and future discoveries.

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Many other divinities such as Ganesha, Prajapati, Indra, Shakti, Narada, Saraswati and Lakshmi are also credited with the authorship of many scriptures. Apart from this, countless scholars, seers, sages, philosophers, gurus, ascetic movements and teacher traditions enriched Hinduism through their teachings, writings, commentaries, discourses and expositions. Thus, Hinduism is derived from many sources. Many of its beliefs and practices found their way into other religions, that either originated in India or interacted with it.

Since Hinduism has its roots in the eternal knowledge and its aims and purpose are closely aligned to those of God as the Creator of all, it is considered an eternal religion (Sanatana dharma). Hinduism may disappear from the face of the earth due to the impermanent nature of the world, but the sacred knowledge which forms its foundation will remain forever and keep manifesting in each cycle of creation under different names. It is also said that Hinduism has no founder and no missionary goals because people have to come to it either by providence (birth) or personal decision due to their spiritual readiness (past karma).

The name Hinduism, which is derived from the root word, “Sindhu” came into usage due to historical reasons. Hinduism as a conceptual entity did not exist until the British times. The word itself does not appear in literature until the 17th Century A.D. In medieval times, the Indian subcontinent was known as Hindustan or the land of Hindus. They were not all practising same faith, but different ones, which included Buddhism, Jainism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Brahmanism and several ascetic traditions, sects and sub sects.

The native traditions and the people who practiced Sanatana Dharma went by different names, but not as Hindus. During the British times, all the native faiths were grouped under the generic name, “Hinduism” to distinguish it from Islam and Christianity and to dispense with justice or settle local disputes, property and tax matters.

Subsequently, after the independence, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism were separated from it by enacting laws. Thus, the word Hinduism was born out of historical necessity and entered the constitutional laws of India through legislation.

Hinduism - Core Beliefs, Facts & Principles -hindufaqs

Hinduism – Core Beliefs: Hinduism is not an organised religion, and its belief system has no single, structured approach to teaching it. Nor do Hindus, like the Ten Commandments, have a simple set of laws to obey. Throughout the Hindu world, local, regional, caste, and community-driven practices affect the understanding and practice of beliefs. Yet belief in a Supreme Being and adherence to certain principles such as Reality, dharma, and karma is a common thread across all these variations. And belief in the power of the Vedas (sacred scriptures) serves, to a large degree, as the very meaning of a Hindu, although it can differ greatly in how the Vedas are interpreted.

The major core beliefs that Hindus share includes the following listed below;

Hinduism Believes that Truth is Eternal.

Hindus are seeking knowledge and comprehension of the facts, the very existence of the world and the only truth. Truth is one, according to the Vedas, but it is expressed in a number of ways by the wise.

Hinduism Believes that Brahman is Truth and Reality.

As the only true God who is formless, infinite, all-inclusive, and eternal, Hindus believe in Brahman. Brahman which  is not an abstract in notion; it is a real entity that encompasses everything in the universe (seen and unseen).

Hinduism Believes that The Vedas are the Ultimate Authorities.

The Vedas are scriptures in Hindus containing revelations that ancient saints and sages have got. Hindus claim that the Vedas are without beginning and without end, the believe is that Vedas will remain until all else is destroyed in the universe (at the end of the period of time).

Hinduism Believes that Everyone Should Work Hard to Achieve Dharma.

The understanding of dharma concept allows one to understand the Hindu religion. No single English word, sadly, adequately covers its context. It is possible to define dharma as right conduct, fairness, moral law, and duty. Everyone who makes dharma central to one’s life seeks to do the right thing at all times, according to one’s duty and skills.

Hinduism Believes that Individual Souls are Immortal.

A Hindu claims that there is neither existence nor destruction of the individual soul (atman); it has been, it is, and it will be. The soul’s actions when living in a body require the same soul in a different body to reap the effects of those actions in the next life. The process of movement of the atman is known as transmigration from one body to another. Karma decides the kind of body the soul next inhabits (actions accumulated in previous lives).

The individual soul’s objective is moksha.

Moksha is liberation: the release of the soul from the death and rebirth period. It happens when, by recognize its true essence, the soul unites with Brahman. To this awareness and unification, many paths will lead: the path of obligation, the path of knowledge, and the path of devotion (unconditionally surrender to God).

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Hinduism – Core Beliefs: Other beliefs of Hinduism are:

  • Hindus believe in a single, all-pervading Supreme Being, both Creator and Unmanifest Reality, who is both immanent and transcendent.
  • Hindus believed in the divinity of the four Vedas, the most ancient scripture in the world, and as equally revealed, venerate the Agamas. These primordial hymns are the word of God and the cornerstone of the eternal faith, Sanatana Dharma.
  • Hindus conclude that infinite cycles of formation, preservation and dissolution are undergone by the universe.
  • Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each human, by his thoughts, words and deeds, creates his own destiny.
  • Hindus conclude that, after all karmas have been resolved, the soul reincarnates, developing over multiple births, and moksha, freedom from the rebirth cycle, is achieved. There will not be a single soul robbed of this destiny.
  • Hindus believe that there are supernatural forces in unknown worlds and that with these devas and gods, temple worship, rites, sacraments and personal devotionals create a communion.
  • Hindus believe that understanding the Transcendent Absolute is necessary to an enlightened lord, or satguru, as is personal discipline, good behavior, purification, pilgrimage, self-inquiry, meditation, and surrender to God.
  • In thought, word and deed, Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be cherished and respected, and thus practice ahimsa, nonviolence.
  • Hindus believe that no religion, above all others, teaches the only way to redemption, but that all true paths are facets of the Light of God, worthy of tolerance and understanding.
  • Hinduism, the oldest religion in the world, has no beginning—it is followed by recorded history. It doesn’t have a human creator. It is a spiritual religion that leads the devotee to experience the Reality personally inside, eventually achieving the peak of consciousness where one is man and God.
  • There are four major denominations of Hinduism—Saivism, Shaktism, Vaishnavism and Smartism.
How old is the word Hindu? Where does the word Hindu comes from? - Etymology and History of Hinduism

We want to build on the ancient word “Hindu” from this writing-up. The Communist historians of India and the Western Indologists say that in the 8th century the word “Hindu” was coined by the Arabs and its roots were in the Persian tradition of replacing “S” with “H. The word “Hindu” or its derivatives were, however, used by many inscriptions over a thousand years older than this time. Also, in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India, not in Persia, the root of the word most probably lies. This particular interesting story is written by the uncle of Prophet Mohammed, Omar-bin-e-Hassham, who had written a poem to praise Lord Shiva.

There are so many websites saying that Kaba was an ancient temple of Shiva. They are still thinking what to make of these arguments, but the fact that the uncle of Prophet Mohammed wrote an ode to Lord Shiva is definitely incredible.

The anti-Hindu historians like Romila Thapar and D.N. The Antiquity and Origin of the Word ‘Hindu’ In the 8th century, Jha thought that the term ‘Hindu’ was given currency by the Arabs. However, they do not clarify the basis of their conclusion or cite any facts to support their argument. Not even Muslim Arab writers make such an exaggerated argument.

Another hypothesis advocated by European authors is that the term ‘Hindu’ is a ‘Sindhu’ Persian corruption arising from the Persian tradition of substituting ‘S’ with ‘H.’ No proof is cited even here. The word Persia itself actually contains ‘S’ which, if this theory was right, should have become ‘Perhia’.

In the light of epigraph and literary evidence available from Persian, Indian, Greek, Chinese and Arabic sources, the present paper discusses the above two theories. The evidence appears to support the hypothesis that ‘Hindu’ has been in use since the Vedic period like ‘Sindhu’ and that while ‘Hindu’ is a modified form of ‘Sindhu’ its root lies in the practice of pronouncing ‘H’ instead of ‘S’ in Saurashtran.

Epigraphic Evidence of the word Hindu

The Persian king Darius’s Hamadan, Persepolis and Naqsh-I-Rustam inscriptions mention a ‘Hidu’ population as included in his empire. The date of these inscriptions is between 520-485 B.C. This reality indicates that, more than 500 years before Christ, the word ‘Hi(n)du’ was present.

Xerexes, successor of Darius, gives names of countries under his control in his inscriptions at Persepolis. ‘Hidu’ requires a list. Xerexes ruled from 485-465 B.C. There are three figures above on a tomb in Persepolis in another inscription attributed to Artaxerexes (404-395 B.C.), which are labelled ‘iyam Qataguviya’ (this is Satygidian), ‘iyam Ga(n)dariya’ (this is Gandhara) and ‘iyam Hi(n)duviya’ (this is Hi(n)du). The Asokan (3rd century B.C.) inscriptions frequently use phrases such as ‘Hida’ for ‘India’ and ‘Hida loka’ for ‘Indian country’.

In the Ashokan inscriptions,’ Hida’ and her derived forms are used more than 70 times. For India, the Ashokan inscriptions determine the antiquity of the name ‘Hind’ to at least the third century B.C. The king has the titles shakanshah hind shakastan tuxaristan dabiran dabir, “king of Shakastan, minister of ministers of Hind Shakastan and Tukharistan,” in the Persepolis Pahlvi inscriptions of Shahpur II (310 A.D.).

The epigraphic evidence from the documents of the Achaemenid, Ashokan and Sasanian Pahlvi established a condition on the hypothesis that in the 8th century A.D. the word ‘Hindu’ originated in Arab use. The ancient history of the term ‘Hindu’ takes literary evidence back to at least 1000 B.C. Yeah, and maybe 5000 B.C.

Evidence from Pahlvi Avesta

Hapta-Hindu is used for Sanskrit Sapta-Sindhu in the Avesta, and the Avesta is dated between 5000-1000 B.C. It means that the word ‘Hindu’ is as old as the word ‘Sindhu.’ Sindhu is a concept used in the Rigveda by the Vedik. And thus, as old as the Rigveda,’ Hindu’ is. Veda Vyas talks of the visit of Veda Vyas to the court of Gustashp in the Avestan Gatha ‘Shatir’ 163rd verse and Veda Vyas introduces himself in the presence of Zorashtra saying ‘man marde am Hind jijad.’ (I am a man born in ‘Hind.’) Veda Vyas was an elder contemporary of Shri Krishna (3100 B.C.).

Greek Usage (Indoi)

The Greek word ‘Indoi’ is a softened ‘Hindu’ form where the original ‘H’ was dropped as there is no aspirate in the Greek alphabet. Hekataeus (late 6th century B.C.) and Herodotus (early 5th century B.C.) used this word ‘Indoi’ in Greek literature, thereby indicating that the Greeks used this ‘Hindu’ variant as early as in the  6th century B.C.

The Hebrew Bible (Hodu)

For India, the Hebrew bible make use of the word ‘Hodu’ which is a ‘Hindu’ Judaic type. Earlier than 300 B.C., the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is considered Hebrew spoken in Israel today uses Hodu for India as well.

The Chinese Testimony (Hien-tu)

The Chinese used the word ‘Hien-tu’ for ‘Hindu’ around 100 B.C.11 When explaining the Sai-Wang (100 B.C.) movements, the Chinese annals note that the Sai-Wang went south and entered Ki-Pin by passing Hien-tu. Later Chinese travellers Fa-Hien (5th century A.D.) and Huen-Tsang (7th century A.D.) use a slightly changed ‘Yintu’ word, but the’ Hindu’ affinity is still retained. Until today, this word ‘Yintu’ continues to be used.

Also Read : https://www.hindufaqs.com/some-common-gods-that-appears-in-all-major-mythologies/

Pre-Islamic Arabic Literature

Sair-ul-Okul is an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry from the Makhtab-e-Sultania Turkish Library in Istanbul. A poem by Uncle Omar-bin-e-Hassham of the Prophet Mohammed is included in this anthology. The poem is Mahadev (Shiva) in praise, and uses ‘Hind’ for India and ‘Hindu’ for Indians. Here are some verses quoted:

Wa Abaloha ajabu armeeman Mahadevo Manojail ilamuddin minhum wa sayattaru If, with dedication, one worships Mahadev, the ultimate redemption will be achieved.

Kamil Hinda e Yauman, Wa Yakulam na latabahan foeennak Tawajjaru, wa sahabi Kay yam feema. (Oh Lord, grant me a day’s stay in Hind, where spiritual bliss can be attained.)

Massayare akhalakan hasanan Kullahum, Summa gabul Hindu najumam aja. (But one pilgrimage is worthy of all, and the company of great Hindu saints.)

Another poem by Labi-bin-e Akhtab bin-e Turfa has the same anthology, which is dated 2300 years before Mohammed, i.e. 1700 B.C. ‘Hind’ for India and ‘Hindu’ for Indians are also used in this poem. The four Vedas, Sama, Yajur, Rig and Athar, are also mentioned in the poem. This poem is quoted in columns in New Delhi’s Laxmi Narayan Mandir, commonly known as Birla Mandir (Temple). Some verses are as follows:

Hinda e, wa aradakallha manyonaifail jikaratun, Aya muwarekal araj yushaiya noha minar. (O Hind’s Divine Country, blessed art thou, thou art the chosen land of divine knowledge.)

Wahalatjali Yatun ainana Sahabi akhatun jikra, Hindatun minal Wahajayahi yonajjalur rasu. (That celebratory knowledge shines with such brilliance in the fourfold abundance of the words of the Hindu saints.)

Yakuloonallaha ya ahlal araf alameen kullahum, Veda bukkun malam yonajjaylatun fattabe-u jikaratul. (God enjoins all, follows the direction shown by Veda with divine awareness with devotion.)

Wahowa alamus Sama wal Yajur minallahay Tanajeelan, Yobasshariyona jatun, Fa e noma ya akhigo mutibayan. (Sama and Yajur for Man are filled with wisdom, brothers, following the path that leads you to salvation.)

The two Rigs and Athar(va) also teach us brotherhood, sheltering their lust, dissipating darkness. Wa isa nain huma Rig Athar nasahin ka Khuwatun, Wa asanat Ala-udan wabowa masha e ratun.

Disclaimer: The information above is collected from various sites and discussion forums. There are no solid evidences which will back any of the above points.

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