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Who Founded Hinduism? The Origin Of Hinduism and Sanatana Dharma-hindufaqs

Introduction

What do we mean by Founder? When we say a founder, we mean to say that someone has brought into existence a new faith or formulated a set of religious beliefs, principles and practices which were not in existence before. That cannot happen with a faith such as Hinduism, which is considered eternal. According to the scriptures, Hinduism is the religion of not just humans. Even gods and demons practice it. Ishwar (Ishwara), the Lord of the universe, is its source. He also practices it. Hence, Hinduism is God’s Dharma, brought down to the earth, just as the sacred River Ganga, for the welfare of the humans.

Who is then the Founder of Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma)?

 Hinduism is not founded by a person or a prophet. Its source is God (Brahman) himself. Hence, it is considered an eternal religion (Sanatana dharma). Its first teachers were Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Brahma, the creator God revealed the secret knowledge of the Vedas to gods, humans and demons in the beginning of creation. He also imparted to them the secret knowledge of the Self, but due to their own limitations, they understood it in their own ways.

Vishnu is the preserver. He preserves the knowledge of Hinduism through countless manifestations, associated gods, aspects, saints and seers to ensure the order and regularity of the worlds. Through them, he also restores the lost knowledge of various Yogas or introduces new reforms. Further, whenever the Hindu Dharma declines beyond a point, he incarnates upon earth to restore it and revive its forgotten or lost teachings. Vishnu exemplifies the duties which humans are expected to perform upon earth in their individual capacity as householders within their spheres.

Shiva too plays an important role in upholding Hindu Dharma. As the destroyer, he removes the impurities and confusion that creeps into our sacred knowledge. He is also considered the universal teacher and the source of various art and dance forms (Lalitakalas), Yogas, vocations, sciences, farming, agriculture, alchemy, magic, healing, medicine, Tantra and so on.

Thus, like the mystic Ashvattha Tree which is mentioned in the Vedas, the roots of Hinduism are in heaven, and its branches are spread out on earth. Its core is divine knowledge, which governs the conduct of not only humans but also of the beings in other worlds with God acting as its creator, preserver, concealer, revealer and remover of obstacles. Its core philosophy (the shruti) is eternal, while it changing parts (smriti) keep changing according to the time and circumstances, and the progress of the world. Containing in itself the diversity of God’s creation, it remains open to all possibilities, modifications and future discoveries.

Also Read: Prajapatis – the 10 sons of Lord Brahma

Many other divinities such as Ganesha, Prajapati, Indra, Shakti, Narada, Saraswati and Lakshmi are also credited with the authorship of many scriptures. Apart from this, countless scholars, seers, sages, philosophers, gurus, ascetic movements and teacher traditions enriched Hinduism through their teachings, writings, commentaries, discourses and expositions. Thus, Hinduism is derived from many sources. Many of its beliefs and practices found their way into other religions, that either originated in India or interacted with it.

Since Hinduism has its roots in the eternal knowledge and its aims and purpose are closely aligned to those of God as the Creator of all, it is considered an eternal religion (Sanatana dharma). Hinduism may disappear from the face of the earth due to the impermanent nature of the world, but the sacred knowledge which forms its foundation will remain forever and keep manifesting in each cycle of creation under different names. It is also said that Hinduism has no founder and no missionary goals because people have to come to it either by providence (birth) or personal decision due to their spiritual readiness (past karma).

The name Hinduism, which is derived from the root word, “Sindhu” came into usage due to historical reasons. Hinduism as a conceptual entity did not exist until the British times. The word itself does not appear in literature until the 17th Century A.D. In medieval times, the Indian subcontinent was known as Hindustan or the land of Hindus. They were not all practising same faith, but different ones, which included Buddhism, Jainism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Brahmanism and several ascetic traditions, sects and sub sects.

The native traditions and the people who practiced Sanatana Dharma went by different names, but not as Hindus. During the British times, all the native faiths were grouped under the generic name, “Hinduism” to distinguish it from Islam and Christianity and to dispense with justice or settle local disputes, property and tax matters.

Subsequently, after the independence, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism were separated from it by enacting laws. Thus, the word Hinduism was born out of historical necessity and entered the constitutional laws of India through legislation.

Hinduism - Core Beliefs, Facts & Principles -hindufaqs

Hinduism – Core Beliefs: Hinduism is not an organised religion, and its belief system has no single, structured approach to teaching it. Nor do Hindus, like the Ten Commandments, have a simple set of laws to obey. Throughout the Hindu world, local, regional, caste, and community-driven practices affect the understanding and practice of beliefs. Yet belief in a Supreme Being and adherence to certain principles such as Reality, dharma, and karma is a common thread across all these variations. And belief in the power of the Vedas (sacred scriptures) serves, to a large degree, as the very meaning of a Hindu, although it can differ greatly in how the Vedas are interpreted.

The major core beliefs that Hindus share includes the following listed below;

Hinduism Believes that Truth is Eternal.

Hindus are seeking knowledge and comprehension of the facts, the very existence of the world and the only truth. Truth is one, according to the Vedas, but it is expressed in a number of ways by the wise.

Hinduism Believes that Brahman is Truth and Reality.

As the only true God who is formless, infinite, all-inclusive, and eternal, Hindus believe in Brahman. Brahman which  is not an abstract in notion; it is a real entity that encompasses everything in the universe (seen and unseen).

Hinduism Believes that The Vedas are the Ultimate Authorities.

The Vedas are scriptures in Hindus containing revelations that ancient saints and sages have got. Hindus claim that the Vedas are without beginning and without end, the believe is that Vedas will remain until all else is destroyed in the universe (at the end of the period of time).

Hinduism Believes that Everyone Should Work Hard to Achieve Dharma.

The understanding of dharma concept allows one to understand the Hindu religion. No single English word, sadly, adequately covers its context. It is possible to define dharma as right conduct, fairness, moral law, and duty. Everyone who makes dharma central to one’s life seeks to do the right thing at all times, according to one’s duty and skills.

Hinduism Believes that Individual Souls are Immortal.

A Hindu claims that there is neither existence nor destruction of the individual soul (atman); it has been, it is, and it will be. The soul’s actions when living in a body require the same soul in a different body to reap the effects of those actions in the next life. The process of movement of the atman is known as transmigration from one body to another. Karma decides the kind of body the soul next inhabits (actions accumulated in previous lives).

The individual soul’s objective is moksha.

Moksha is liberation: the release of the soul from the death and rebirth period. It happens when, by recognize its true essence, the soul unites with Brahman. To this awareness and unification, many paths will lead: the path of obligation, the path of knowledge, and the path of devotion (unconditionally surrender to God).

Also Read: The Complete Story Of Jayadratha (जयद्रथ) The King Of Sindhu Kingdom

Hinduism – Core Beliefs: Other beliefs of Hinduism are:

  • Hindus believe in a single, all-pervading Supreme Being, both Creator and Unmanifest Reality, who is both immanent and transcendent.
  • Hindus believed in the divinity of the four Vedas, the most ancient scripture in the world, and as equally revealed, venerate the Agamas. These primordial hymns are the word of God and the cornerstone of the eternal faith, Sanatana Dharma.
  • Hindus conclude that infinite cycles of formation, preservation and dissolution are undergone by the universe.
  • Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each human, by his thoughts, words and deeds, creates his own destiny.
  • Hindus conclude that, after all karmas have been resolved, the soul reincarnates, developing over multiple births, and moksha, freedom from the rebirth cycle, is achieved. There will not be a single soul robbed of this destiny.
  • Hindus believe that there are supernatural forces in unknown worlds and that with these devas and gods, temple worship, rites, sacraments and personal devotionals create a communion.
  • Hindus believe that understanding the Transcendent Absolute is necessary to an enlightened lord, or satguru, as is personal discipline, good behavior, purification, pilgrimage, self-inquiry, meditation, and surrender to God.
  • In thought, word and deed, Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be cherished and respected, and thus practice ahimsa, nonviolence.
  • Hindus believe that no religion, above all others, teaches the only way to redemption, but that all true paths are facets of the Light of God, worthy of tolerance and understanding.
  • Hinduism, the oldest religion in the world, has no beginning—it is followed by recorded history. It doesn’t have a human creator. It is a spiritual religion that leads the devotee to experience the Reality personally inside, eventually achieving the peak of consciousness where one is man and God.
  • There are four major denominations of Hinduism—Saivism, Shaktism, Vaishnavism and Smartism.
How old is the word Hindu? Where does the word Hindu comes from? - Etymology and History of Hinduism

We want to build on the ancient word “Hindu” from this writing-up. The Communist historians of India and the Western Indologists say that in the 8th century the word “Hindu” was coined by the Arabs and its roots were in the Persian tradition of replacing “S” with “H. The word “Hindu” or its derivatives were, however, used by many inscriptions over a thousand years older than this time. Also, in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India, not in Persia, the root of the word most probably lies. This particular interesting story is written by the uncle of Prophet Mohammed, Omar-bin-e-Hassham, who had written a poem to praise Lord Shiva.

There are so many websites saying that Kaba was an ancient temple of Shiva. They are still thinking what to make of these arguments, but the fact that the uncle of Prophet Mohammed wrote an ode to Lord Shiva is definitely incredible.

The anti-Hindu historians like Romila Thapar and D.N. The Antiquity and Origin of the Word ‘Hindu’ In the 8th century, Jha thought that the term ‘Hindu’ was given currency by the Arabs. However, they do not clarify the basis of their conclusion or cite any facts to support their argument. Not even Muslim Arab writers make such an exaggerated argument.

Another hypothesis advocated by European authors is that the term ‘Hindu’ is a ‘Sindhu’ Persian corruption arising from the Persian tradition of substituting ‘S’ with ‘H.’ No proof is cited even here. The word Persia itself actually contains ‘S’ which, if this theory was right, should have become ‘Perhia’.

In the light of epigraph and literary evidence available from Persian, Indian, Greek, Chinese and Arabic sources, the present paper discusses the above two theories. The evidence appears to support the hypothesis that ‘Hindu’ has been in use since the Vedic period like ‘Sindhu’ and that while ‘Hindu’ is a modified form of ‘Sindhu’ its root lies in the practice of pronouncing ‘H’ instead of ‘S’ in Saurashtran.

Epigraphic Evidence of the word Hindu

The Persian king Darius’s Hamadan, Persepolis and Naqsh-I-Rustam inscriptions mention a ‘Hidu’ population as included in his empire. The date of these inscriptions is between 520-485 B.C. This reality indicates that, more than 500 years before Christ, the word ‘Hi(n)du’ was present.

Xerexes, successor of Darius, gives names of countries under his control in his inscriptions at Persepolis. ‘Hidu’ requires a list. Xerexes ruled from 485-465 B.C. There are three figures above on a tomb in Persepolis in another inscription attributed to Artaxerexes (404-395 B.C.), which are labelled ‘iyam Qataguviya’ (this is Satygidian), ‘iyam Ga(n)dariya’ (this is Gandhara) and ‘iyam Hi(n)duviya’ (this is Hi(n)du). The Asokan (3rd century B.C.) inscriptions frequently use phrases such as ‘Hida’ for ‘India’ and ‘Hida loka’ for ‘Indian country’.

In the Ashokan inscriptions,’ Hida’ and her derived forms are used more than 70 times. For India, the Ashokan inscriptions determine the antiquity of the name ‘Hind’ to at least the third century B.C. The king has the titles shakanshah hind shakastan tuxaristan dabiran dabir, “king of Shakastan, minister of ministers of Hind Shakastan and Tukharistan,” in the Persepolis Pahlvi inscriptions of Shahpur II (310 A.D.).

The epigraphic evidence from the documents of the Achaemenid, Ashokan and Sasanian Pahlvi established a condition on the hypothesis that in the 8th century A.D. the word ‘Hindu’ originated in Arab use. The ancient history of the term ‘Hindu’ takes literary evidence back to at least 1000 B.C. Yeah, and maybe 5000 B.C.

Evidence from Pahlvi Avesta

Hapta-Hindu is used for Sanskrit Sapta-Sindhu in the Avesta, and the Avesta is dated between 5000-1000 B.C. It means that the word ‘Hindu’ is as old as the word ‘Sindhu.’ Sindhu is a concept used in the Rigveda by the Vedik. And thus, as old as the Rigveda,’ Hindu’ is. Veda Vyas talks of the visit of Veda Vyas to the court of Gustashp in the Avestan Gatha ‘Shatir’ 163rd verse and Veda Vyas introduces himself in the presence of Zorashtra saying ‘man marde am Hind jijad.’ (I am a man born in ‘Hind.’) Veda Vyas was an elder contemporary of Shri Krishna (3100 B.C.).

Greek Usage (Indoi)

The Greek word ‘Indoi’ is a softened ‘Hindu’ form where the original ‘H’ was dropped as there is no aspirate in the Greek alphabet. Hekataeus (late 6th century B.C.) and Herodotus (early 5th century B.C.) used this word ‘Indoi’ in Greek literature, thereby indicating that the Greeks used this ‘Hindu’ variant as early as in the  6th century B.C.

The Hebrew Bible (Hodu)

For India, the Hebrew bible make use of the word ‘Hodu’ which is a ‘Hindu’ Judaic type. Earlier than 300 B.C., the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is considered Hebrew spoken in Israel today uses Hodu for India as well.

The Chinese Testimony (Hien-tu)

The Chinese used the word ‘Hien-tu’ for ‘Hindu’ around 100 B.C.11 When explaining the Sai-Wang (100 B.C.) movements, the Chinese annals note that the Sai-Wang went south and entered Ki-Pin by passing Hien-tu. Later Chinese travellers Fa-Hien (5th century A.D.) and Huen-Tsang (7th century A.D.) use a slightly changed ‘Yintu’ word, but the’ Hindu’ affinity is still retained. Until today, this word ‘Yintu’ continues to be used.

Also Read : https://www.hindufaqs.com/some-common-gods-that-appears-in-all-major-mythologies/

Pre-Islamic Arabic Literature

Sair-ul-Okul is an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry from the Makhtab-e-Sultania Turkish Library in Istanbul. A poem by Uncle Omar-bin-e-Hassham of the Prophet Mohammed is included in this anthology. The poem is Mahadev (Shiva) in praise, and uses ‘Hind’ for India and ‘Hindu’ for Indians. Here are some verses quoted:

Wa Abaloha ajabu armeeman Mahadevo Manojail ilamuddin minhum wa sayattaru If, with dedication, one worships Mahadev, the ultimate redemption will be achieved.

Kamil Hinda e Yauman, Wa Yakulam na latabahan foeennak Tawajjaru, wa sahabi Kay yam feema. (Oh Lord, grant me a day’s stay in Hind, where spiritual bliss can be attained.)

Massayare akhalakan hasanan Kullahum, Summa gabul Hindu najumam aja. (But one pilgrimage is worthy of all, and the company of great Hindu saints.)

Another poem by Labi-bin-e Akhtab bin-e Turfa has the same anthology, which is dated 2300 years before Mohammed, i.e. 1700 B.C. ‘Hind’ for India and ‘Hindu’ for Indians are also used in this poem. The four Vedas, Sama, Yajur, Rig and Athar, are also mentioned in the poem. This poem is quoted in columns in New Delhi’s Laxmi Narayan Mandir, commonly known as Birla Mandir (Temple). Some verses are as follows:

Hinda e, wa aradakallha manyonaifail jikaratun, Aya muwarekal araj yushaiya noha minar. (O Hind’s Divine Country, blessed art thou, thou art the chosen land of divine knowledge.)

Wahalatjali Yatun ainana Sahabi akhatun jikra, Hindatun minal Wahajayahi yonajjalur rasu. (That celebratory knowledge shines with such brilliance in the fourfold abundance of the words of the Hindu saints.)

Yakuloonallaha ya ahlal araf alameen kullahum, Veda bukkun malam yonajjaylatun fattabe-u jikaratul. (God enjoins all, follows the direction shown by Veda with divine awareness with devotion.)

Wahowa alamus Sama wal Yajur minallahay Tanajeelan, Yobasshariyona jatun, Fa e noma ya akhigo mutibayan. (Sama and Yajur for Man are filled with wisdom, brothers, following the path that leads you to salvation.)

The two Rigs and Athar(va) also teach us brotherhood, sheltering their lust, dissipating darkness. Wa isa nain huma Rig Athar nasahin ka Khuwatun, Wa asanat Ala-udan wabowa masha e ratun.

Disclaimer: The information above is collected from various sites and discussion forums. There are no solid evidences which will back any of the above points.

The Complete Story Of Jayadratha (जयद्रथ) The King Of Sindhu Kungdom

Who is Jayadratha?

King Jayadratha was the king of Sindhu, the son of King Vridhakshatra, husband of Dussla, the only daughter of King Dritarastra and Queen Gandhari of Hastinapur. He had  two other wives apart from Dushala , princess of Gandhara and the princess from Kamboja. His son’s name is Surath. He has a very short but very important part in Mahabharata as an evil guy, who was indirectly responsible for the demise of Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna, the third Pandava. His other names were Sindhuraja, Saindhava, Sauvira, Sauviraja,Sindhuraṭ and Sindhusauvirabharta.The word Jayadratha in sanskrit consists of two words- Jaya means Victorious and ratha means chariots. So jayadratha means having Victorious chariots.Some lesser know fact about him is, Jayadratha was also present in the game of dice, during defamation of Draupadi.

Birth of Jayadratha and the boon 

King of Sindhu, Vridhakshatra once heard a prophecy, that his son Jayadratha might get killed. Vridhakshatra, being scared for his only son became scared and went to jungle to do tapasya and penance and became a sage. His motive was to achieve the boon of complete immortality, but he failed. By his tapasya, he could only receive a boon that Jayadratha would become a very famous king and the person who will cause Jayadratha’s head to fall to the ground, that person’s head get divided into thousand pieces and will die. King Vridhakshatra was relieved. He made Jayadratha, the King of Sindhu at a very young age and went in the jungle to practice penance.

Dushala’s marriage with Jayadratha

It is believed that Dushala was married of to Jayadratha to form a political alliance with the Sindhu kingdom and Maratha kingdom. But the marriage wasn’t a happy marriage at all. Not only Jayadratha married two other women, but also, he was disrespectful and uncivil towards women in general.

Draupadi’s abduction by Jayadratha

Jayadratha was sworn enemy of Pandavas, the reason of this enmity is not hard to guess. They were were rivals of Duryadhana , brother of his wife. And also, king Jayadratha was also present in Princess Draupadi’s swambara. He was obsessed with Draupadi’s beauty and was desperate to get her hand in marriage. But instead, Arjuna, the third Pandava was the one who married Draupadi and later other four Pandavas also married her. So, Jayadratha had casted an evil eye on Draupadi from a long time ago.

One day, during the Pandava’s time in forest, after losing everything in the evil game of dice, they were staying in the Kamakya forest, Pandavas went for hunting , keeping Draupadi under the guardianship of a sage named Dhauma, the ashram Trinabindu. At that time, King Jayadratha was passing through the forest along with his advisers, ministers and armies, marching towards kingdom of Salva, for her marriage of her daughter. He suddenly spotted Draupadi, standing against Kadamba tree, watching the procession of army. He couldn’t recognise her due her very simple attire, but was mesmerised by her beauty. Jayadratha sent his very close friend Kotikasya to enquire about her.

Kotikasya went to her and asked her what is her identity, is she an earthly woman or some apsara( devine woman, who danced at gods courtroom). Was she Sachi, the wife of Lord Indra, came here for some diversion and change of air. How was she so beautiful. Who was so fortunate to get someone so beautiful to be his wife.He gave his identity as Kotikasya, a close friend of Jayadratha. He also told her that Jayadratha was mesmerised by her beauty and told him to fetch her. Draupadi was startled but quickly composed herself. She stated her identity, telling that she was Draupadi, the wife of Pandavas , in other words, Jayadratha’s brother-in-laws. She told, as Kotikasya now knows her identity and her family relations, she would expect Kotikasya and Jayadratha to give her deserved respect and follow the royal etiquettes of manners, speech and action. She also told that for now they can enjoy her hospitality and wait for Pandavas to come . They would arrive soon.

Kotikasya went back to king Jayadratha and told him that the beautiful lady which Jayadratha so eagerly wanted to meet, was no other than queen Draupadi, wife of Panch Pandavas. Evil Jayadratha wanted to take the opportunity of Pandavas absence, and fulfill his desires. King Jayadratha went to the ashram. Devi Draupadi, at first, was very happy to see Jayadratha, the husband of Pandavas and Kaurava’s only sister Dushala. She wanted to give him warm welcome and hospitality, untill the arrival of Pandavas. But Jayadratha ignored all the hospitality and Royal etiquettes and started making Draupadi uncomfortable by praising her beauty. Then Jayadratha hounded on Draupadi telling most beautiful woman on earth, the princess of Panch, should not waste her beauty, youth and loveliness in the forest by staying with shameless beggars like Panch Pandavas. Rather she should be with powerful king like him and only that suits her. He tried to manipulate Draupadi to leave with him and marry him because only he deserves him and he would treat her like only queen of her hearts. Sensing where the things are going, Draupadi decided to kill time by talking and warnings till Pandavas arrive. She warned Jayadratha that she is the royal wife of his wife’s family, so she is also related to him, and it is expected of him to desire and try to woo a family lady. She added that she was very happily married with Pandavas and also mother of their five children.He should try and control himself, be decent and maintain a decorum, or else, he would had to face severe consequences of his evil action, as Panch Pandavas would not spare him. Jayadratha became more desperate and told Draupadi to stopped talking and follow him to his chariot and leave with him. Draupadi became furious after observing his audacity and glared at him. She, with sterned eyes, told him to get out of the ashram. Getting refused again, Jayadratha’s desperation reached at peak and he took a very hasty and evil decision. He dragged Draupadi from ashram and forcefully took her to his chariot and left. Draupadi was crying and lamenting and shouting for help at the peak of her voice . Hearing that, Dhauma rushed out and followed their chariot like a mad man.

Meanwhile, Pandavas returned from hunting and food gathering. Their maid Dhatreyika informed them about abduction of their dear wife Draupadi by their brother in law King Jayadratha. Pandavas became furious. After being well equipped they traced the chariot in the direction shown by the maid, successfully chased them, easily defeated Jayadratha’s whole army, caught Jayadratha and rescued Draupadi. Draupadi wanted him to die.

Humiliation of King Jayadratha by Panch Pandavas as punishment

After rescuing Draupadi, they captivated Jayadratha. Bhima and Arjuna wanted to kill him, but Dharmaputra Yudhisthira, the eldest of them, wanted Jayadratha to be alive, because his kind heart thought of their only sister Dussala, as she would have to suffer a lot if Jayadratha died. Devi Draupadi also agreed. But Bhima and Arjuna didn’t wanted to leave Jayadratha that easily. So Jayadratha was given a good bearings with frequent punches and kicks. Adding a feather to Jayadratha’s humiliation, Pandavas shaved his head saving five tufts of hair, which will remind everyone of how strong Panch Pandavas were. Bhima left Jayadratha on one condition, he would had to bow down before Yudhisthira and had to declare himself as slave of Pandavas and would have that to everyone, the assembly of kings upon returning. Though feeling humiliated and fuming with anger, he was scared for his life, so obeying Bhima, he knelt before Yudhisthira. Yudhisthira smiled and forgave him. Draupadi was satisfied. Then Pandavas released him. Jayadratha hadn’t felt so much insulted and humiliated his entire life. He was fuming with anger and his evil mind wanted severe revenge.

The boon given by Shiva

Of course after such humiliation, He could not return to his kingdom, specially with some appearance. He went straight to the mouth of Ganges to do tapasya and penance to acquire more power. By his tapasya, he pleased Lord Shiva and Shiva asked him to want for a boon. Jayadratha wanted to kill the Pandavas. Shiva said that will be impossible for anyone to do. Then Jayadratha said that he wanted to defeat them in a war. Lord Shiva said, it will be impossible to defeat Arjuna, even by the gods. Finally Lord Shiva gave a boon that Jayadratha would be able to hold back and restrain all the attacks of Pandavas except Arjuna for only one day.

This boon from Shiva played a huge role in the war of Kurukshetra.

Indirect role of Jayadratha in the cruel death of Abhimanyu

In the thirteenth day of war of Kurukshetra, Kaurava’s had aligned their soldiers in form of Chakravyuh. It was the most dangerous alignment and only greatest of the great soldiers knew how to enter and successfully exit the Chakravyuh. In the side of Pandavas, only Arjun and Lord Krishna knew how to enter, destroy and exit vyuh. But that day, as per Shakuni, the maternal uncle of Duryadhana’s plan, they asked Susharma, the king of Trigat to brutally attack Virat, the king of Matsya, to distract Arjuna. It was under the palace of Virat, where Panch Pandavas and Draupadi had his themselves while the last year of exile. So, Arjuna felt obligated to rescue king Virat and also Susharma had challenged Arjuna in a one on one battle. In those days, ignoring challenge wasn’t a warrior’s thing. So Arjuna decided to go in the other side of Kurukshetra to help king Virat, warning his brothers not to enter the Chakravyuh, untill he returns and engage the Kauravas in small battles outside the Chakravyuh.

Arjuna became really busy with the war and seeing no signs of Arjun, Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna and Subhadra, a great warrior at the age of sixteen, decided to enter the Chakravyuhyuh.

One day, when Subhadra was pregnant with Abhimanyu, Arjun was narrating Subhadra how to enter Chakravyuh. Abhimanyu could hear the process from his mother’s womb. But after sometime Subhadra fell asleep and so Arjuna stopped narrating. So Abhimanyu didn’t knew how to exit Chakravyuh safely

Their plan was, Abhimanyu would enter Chakravyuh through one of the seven entrance, followed by other four Pandavas, they would protect each other, and fight together in the centre untill Arjuna arrives. Abhimanyu successfully entered the Chakravyuh, but Jayadratha, being on that entrance stopped Pandavas. He used the boon given by Lord Shiva. No matter how much Pandavas caused, Jayadratha stopped them successfully. And Abhimanyu was left alone in the Chakravyuh in front of all the greatest of the great warriors. Abhimanyu was brutally killed by everyone of the opposition. Jayadratha made Pandavas watch the painful scene, keeping them helpless for that day.

Death of Jayadratha by Arjuna

Arjun upon returning, heard the unfair and brutal demise of his beloved son, and specially blamed Jayadratha as he felt betrayed. Pandavas didn’t kill Jayadratha when he tried to abduct Draupadi and forgave him. But Jayadratha was the reason, other Pandavas couldn’t enter and save Abhimanyu. So angry took an dangerous oath. He said that if he couldn’t kill Jayadratha by the next day’s sunset, he himself will jump into the fire and give up his life.

Hearing such a fierce oath, ever great warrior decided to protect Jayadratha by creating Sakata vyuh in the front and Padma vyuh in the back.Inside Padma vyuh, Dronacharya, the commander in chief of Kauravas, made another vyuh, named Suchi and kept Jayadratha in the middle of that vyuh. Through out the day, all the great warriors like Dronacharya, karna , Duryadhana’s kept guarding Jayadratha and distracted Arjuna. Krishna observed that it was almost the time of sunset. Krishna eclipsed the sun using his Sudarshana chakra and everyone thought sun has set. Kauravas became very happy. Jayadratha was relieved and came out to see that it was really the end of the day, Arjuna took that chance. He invoked Pasupat weapon and killed Jayadratha.

Verse 1:

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच |
धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः |
मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ||1||

dhṛitarāśhtra uvācha
dharma-kṣhetre kuru-kṣhetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāśhchaiva kimakurvata sañjaya

Commentary of this Verse:

King Dhritarashtra, apart from being blind from birth, was also bereft of spiritual wisdom. His attachment to his own sons made him deviate from the path of virtue and usurp the rightful kingdom of the Pandavas. He was conscious of the injustice he had done toward his own nephews, the sons of Pandu. His guilty conscience worried him about the outcome of the battle, and so he inquired from Sanjay about the events on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, where the war was to be fought.

In this verse, the question he asked Sanjay was, what did his sons and the sons of Pandu do, having gathered on the battlefield? Now, it was obvious that they had assembled there with the sole purpose of fighting. So it was natural that they would fight. Why did Dhritarashtra feel the need to ask what they did?

His doubt can be discerned from the words he used—dharma kṣhetre, the land of dharma (virtuous conduct). Kurukshetra was a sacred land. In the Shatapath Brahman, it is described as: kurukṣhetraṁ deva yajanam [v1]. “Kurukshetra is the sacrificial arena of the celestial gods.” It was thus the land that nourished dharma. Dhritarashtra apprehended that the influence of the holy land of Kurukshetra would arouse the faculty of discrimination in his sons and they would regard the massacre of their relatives, the Pandavas, as improper. Thinking thus, they might agree to a peaceful settlement. Dhritarashtra felt great dissatisfaction at this possibility. He thought if his sons negotiated a truce, the Pandavas would continue to remain an impediment for them, and hence it was preferable that the war took place. At the same time, he was uncertain of the consequences of the war, and wished to ascertain the fate of his sons. As a result, he asked Sanjay about the goings-on at the battleground of Kurukshetra, where the two armies had gathered.

Source: bhagwatgeeta.org

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Jagannath Temple, Puri

Sanskrit:

कदाचित्कालिन्दी तट विपिनसङ्गीततरलो
मुदाभीरीनारीवदन कमलास्वादमधुपः ।
रमाशम्भुब्रह्मामरपति गणेशार्चितपदो
जगन्नाथः स्वामी नयनपथगामी भवतुमे ॥१॥

Translation:

Kadahit Kalindi tatta vipina sangita taralo
Mudaa abhiri Naarivadana Kamalasvada madhupah |
Ramaa Shambhu Brahmaamarapati Ganesharchita pado
Jagannathah Swami nayana pathagaami bhavatu me ||1||

Meaning:

1.1 I meditate on Sri Jagannatha, Who fills the environment of Vrindavana on the banks of river Kalindi (Yamuna) with the Music (of His Flute); The Music which waves and flows gently (like the waving blue waters of river Yamuna itself),
1.2: (There) like a Black Bee Who enjoys the blooming Lotuses (in the form) of the blooming Faces ( Joyful with Bliss ) of the Cowherd Women,
1.3: Whose Lotus Feet is always Worshipped by Ramaa (Devi Lakshmi), Shambhu (Shiva), Brahma, the Lord of the Devas (i.e. Indra Deva) and Sri Ganesha,
1.4: May that Jagannath Swami be the center of my Vision (inner and outer) ( wherever my Eyes go ).

Sanskrit:

भुजे सव्ये वेणुं शिरसि शिखिपिच्छं कटितटे
दुकूलं नेत्रान्ते सहचरकटाक्षं  विदधत् ।
सदा श्रीमद्वृन्दावनवसतिलीला परिचयो
जगन्नाथः स्वामी नयनपथगामी भवतु मे ॥२॥

Source: Pinterest

Translation:

Bhuje Save Vennum Shirazi Shikhi_Piccham Kattitatte
Dukuulam Netra-Ante Sahacara_Kattaakssam Ca Vidadhat |
Sadaa Shriimad-Vrndaavana_Vasati_Liilaa_Paricayo
Jagannatha Svaamii Nayana_Patha_Gaamii Bhavatu Me ||2||

Meaning:

2.1 (I meditate on Sri Jagannatha) Who has a Flute on His Left Hand and wears the Feather of a Peacock over His Head; And wraps over His Hips …
2.2: … fine silken Clothes; Who bestows Side-Glances to His Companions from the corner of His Eyes,
2.3: Who always reveals His Divine Leelas abiding in the forest of Vrindavana; the forest which is filled with Sri (Divine presence amidst the beauty of Nature),
2.4: May that Jagannath Swami is the center of my Vision (inner and outer) ( wherever my Eyes go ).

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The goddess Kamakshee is the form of Tripura Sundari or Parvati or the universal mother … The main temples of Kamakshi Devi in Goa are the Kamakshi Rayeshwar temple at Shiroda. 

Sanskrit:

कल्पानोकह_पुष्प_जाल_विलसन्नीलालकां मातृकां
कान्तां कञ्ज_दलेक्षणां कलि_मल_प्रध्वंसिनीं कालिकाम् ।
काञ्ची_नूपुर_हार_दाम_सुभगां काञ्ची_पुरी_नायिकां
कामाक्षीं करि_कुम्भ_सन्निभ_कुचां वन्दे महेश_प्रियाम् ॥१॥


Translation:

Kalpa-Anokaha_Pusspa_Jaala_Vilasan-Niilaa-[A]lakaam Maatrkaam
Kaantaam Kan.ja_Dale[a-Ii]kssannaam Kali_Mala_Pradhvamsiniim Kaalikaam |
Kaan.cii_Nuupura_Haara_Daama_Subhagaam Kaan.cii_Purii_Naayikaam
Kaamaakssiim Kari_Kumbha_Sannibha_Kucaam Vande Mahesha_Priyaam ||1||

Source: Pinterest

Meaning:

1.1: (Salutations to Devi Kamakshi) Who is like the Flowers of the Wish-Fulfilling Tree (Kalpataru) Shining Brightly, with Darklocks of Hair, and seated as the Great Mother,
1.2: Who is Beautiful with Eyes like the Lotus Petals, and at the same time terrible in the form of Devi Kalika, the Destroyer of the Sins of Kali-Yuga,
1.3: Who is beautifully Adorned with GirdlesAnkletsGarlands, and Wreath, and brings Good Fortune to All as the Goddess of Kanchi Puri,
1.4: Whose Bosom is beautiful like the Forehead of an Elephant and is filled with Compassion; We Extol Devi Kamakshi, the Beloved of Sri Mahesha.

Sanskrit:

काशाभांशुक_भासुरां प्रविलसत्_कोशातकी_सन्निभां
चन्द्रार्कानल_लोचनां सुरुचिरालङ्कार_भूषोज्ज्वलाम् ।
ब्रह्म_श्रीपति_वासवादि_मुनिभिः संसेविताङ्घ्रि_द्वयां
कामाक्षीं गज_राज_मन्द_गमनां वन्दे महेश_प्रियाम् ॥२॥

Translation:

Kaasha-Aabhaam-Shuka_Bhaasuraam Pravilasat_Koshaatakii_Sannibhaam
Candra-Arka-Anala_Locanaam Surucira-Alangkaara_Bhuusso[a-U]jjvalaam |
Brahma_Shriipati_Vaasava-[A]adi_Munibhih Samsevita-Angghri_Dvayaam
Kaamaakssiim Gaja_Raaja_Manda_Gamanaam Vande Mahesha_Priyaam ||2||

Meaning:

2.1: (Salutations to Devi Kamakshi) Who has a Green Parrot which Shines like the Colour of the Kasha Grass, She Herself Shining Brightly like a Moonlit Night,
2.2: Whose three Eyes are the SunMoon and the Fire; and Who Adorned with Radiant Ornaments is Blazing Luminous,
2.3: Whose Holy Pair of Feet is Served by Lord BrahmaLord VishnuIndra and other Devas, as well as the Great Sages,
2.4: Whose Movement is Gentle like the King of Elephants; We Extol Devi Kamakshi, the Beloved of Sri Mahesha.

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Bhuvaneshwari (Sanskrit: भुवनेश्वरी) is the fourth amongst the ten Mahavidya goddesses and an aspect of Devi or Durga

Sanskrit:

उद्यद्दिनद्युतिमिन्दुकिरीटां
तुङ्गकुचां नयनत्रययुक्ताम् ।
स्मेरमुखीं वरदाङ्कुशपाशां_
ऽभीतिकरां प्रभजे भुवनेशीम् ॥१॥


Udyad-Dina-Dyutim-Indu-Kiriittaam
Tungga-Kucaam Nayana-Traya-Yuktaam |
Smera-Mukhiim Varada-Angkusha-Paashaam_
Abhiiti-Karaam Prabhaje Bhuvaneshiim ||1||

Source: Pinterest

Meaning:
1.1: (Salutations to Devi Bhuvaneswari) Who has the Splendour of the Rising Sun of the Day, and Who holds the Moon on Her Crown like an Ornament.
1.2: Who has High Breasts and Three Eyes (containing the Sun, Moon and the Fire),
1.3: Who has a Smiling Face and shows the Vara Mudra (Boon-Giving gesture), holds an Ankusha (a Hook) and a Pasha (a Noose), …
1.4 … and displays the Abhaya Mudra (gesture of Fearlessness) with Her HandsSalutations to Devi Bhuvaneswari.

Sanskrit:

सिन्दूरारुणविग्रहां त्रिनयनां माणिक्यमौलिस्फुरत् ।
तारानायकशेखरां स्मितमुखीमापीनवक्षोरुहाम् ॥
पाणिभ्यामलिपूर्णरत्नचषकं संविभ्रतीं शाश्वतीं ।
सौम्यां रत्नघटस्थमध्यचरणां द्यायेत्परामम्बिकाम् ॥२॥

Sinduura-Arunna-Vigrahaam Tri-Nayanaam Maannikya-Mauli-Sphurat |
Taaraa-Naayaka-Shekharaam Smita-Mukhiim-Aapiina-Vakssoruhaam ||
Paannibhyaam-Ali-Puurnna-Ratna-Cassakam Sam-Vibhratiim Shaashvatiim |
Saumyaam Ratna-Ghattastha-Madhya-Carannaam Dyaayet-Paraam-Ambikaam ||2||

Meaning:

2.1: (Salutations to Devi Bhuvaneswari) Whose Beautiful Form has the Reddish Glow of the Early Morning Sun; Who has Three Eyes and Whose Head Glitters with the Ornament of Gems,
2.2: Who Holds the Chief of Star (i.e. the Moon) on Her Head, Who has a Smiling Face and Full Bosom,
2.3: Who Holds a Gem-studded Cup filled with Divine Liquor on Her Hands, and Who is Eternal,
2.4: Who is Cool and Joyful, and rests Her Feet on a Pitcher filled with Jewels; We Meditate on the Supreme Ambika (Supreme Mother).

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Lord Venkateswara is the main deity of the Tirumala temple, Tirupathi. The lord is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

Sanskrit:

कौसल्या सुप्रजा राम पूर्वासन्ध्या प्रवर्तते ।
उत्तिष्ठ नरशार्दूल कर्त्तव्यं दैवमाह्निकम् ॥१॥

Translation:

Kausalyaa Su-Prajaa Raama Puurvaa-Sandhyaa Pravartate |
Uttissttha Nara-Shaarduula Karttavyam Daivam-Aahnikam ||1||

Meaning:

1.1: (Salutations to Sri Govinda) O Rama, the most Excellent Son of Kaushalya; in the East the Dawn is fast approaching at this Beautiful juncture of Night and Day,
1.2: Please Wake Up in Our Hearts, O Purushottama (the Best of Men ) so that we can perform our Daily Duties as Divine Rituals unto You and thus do the Ultimate Duty of our lives.

Sanskrit:

उत्तिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ गोविन्द उत्तिष्ठ गरुडध्वज ।
उत्तिष्ठ कमलाकान्त त्रैलोक्यं मङ्गलं कुरु ॥२॥

Translation:

Uttissttho[ah-U]ttissttha Govinda Uttissttha Garudda-Dhvaja |
Uttissttha Kamalaa-Kaanta Trai-Lokyam Manggalam Kuru ||2||

Meaning:

2.1: (Salutations to Sri Govinda) In this Beautiful Dawn Wake UpWake Up O Govinda within Our Hearts. Wake Up O the One with Garuda in His Flag,
2.2: Please Wake Up, O Beloved of Kamala and fill the Hearts of the Devotees in the Three Worlds with the Auspicious Bliss of Your Presence.

Source: Pinterest

Sanskrit:

मातस्समस्तजगतां मधुकैटभारेः
वक्षोविहारिणि मनोहरदिव्यमूर्ते ।
श्रीस्वामिनि श्रितजनप्रियदानशीले
श्रीवेङ्कटेशदयिते तव सुप्रभातम् ॥३॥

Translation:

Maatas-Samasta-Jagataam Madhu-Kaittabha-Areh
Vaksso-Vihaarinni Manohara-Divya-Muurte |
Shrii-Svaamini Shrita-Janapriya-Daanashiile
Shrii-Vengkattesha-Dayite Tava Suprabhaatam ||3||

Meaning:

3.1 (Salutations to Divine Mother Lakshmi) In this Beautiful Dawn, O Mother of all the Worlds, Let Our Inner enemies Madhu and Kaitabha disappear,
3.2: And Let us only see Your Beautiful Divine Form playing within the Heart of Sri Govinda in the entire Creation,
3.3: You are worshipped as the Lord of all the Worlds and extremely Dear to the Devotees, and Your Liberal Disposition has created such Abundance of Creation,
3.4: Such is Your Glory that this Beautiful Dawn of Your Creation is being cherished by Sri Venkatesa Himself.

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Shambhu, this name of Lord Shankar indicates his blissful personality. He assumes the form of gross elements during playful moments.
Sanskrit:
नमामि देवं परमव्ययंतं
उमापतिं लोकगुरुं नमामि ।
नमामि दारिद्रविदारणं तं
नमामि रोगापहरं नमामि ॥२॥
Translation:
Namaami Devam Param-Avyayam-Tam
Umaa-Patim Loka-Gurum Namaami |
Namaami Daaridra-Vidaarannam Tam
Namaami Roga-Apaharam Namaami ||2||

Meaning:

2.1 I reverentially bow down to the Divine Lord Who abides as the unchangeable state beyond the human mind,
2.2: To that Lord Who is also embodied as the consort of Devi Uma, and Who is the Spiritual Teacher of the whole World, I reverentially bow down,
2.3: I reverentially bow down to Him Who tears asunder our (inner) Poverties (He being present as our most Glorious Inner Being),
2.4: (And) I reverentially bow down to Him Who takes away our Diseases (of Samsara) (by revealing His Glorious Nature).

Source: Pinterest

Sanskrit:

नमामि कल्याणमचिन्त्यरूपं
नमामि विश्वोद्ध्वबीजरूपम् ।
नमामि विश्वस्थितिकारणं तं
नमामि संहारकरं नमामि ॥३॥

Translation:

Namaami Kalyaannam-Acintya-Ruupam
Namaami Vishvo[a-U]ddhva-Biija-Ruupam |
Namaami Vishva-Sthiti-Kaarannam Tam
Namaami Samhaara-Karam Namaami ||3||

Meaning:

3.1: I reverentially bow down (to Him) Who is the cause of all Auspiciousness, (ever present behind the mind) in His Inconceivable form,
3.2: I reverentially bow down (to Him) Whose form is like the seed giving rise to the Universe,
3.3: I reverentially bow down to Him Who is also the cause of the maintenance of the Universe,
3.4: (And) I reverentially bow down (to Him) Who is (finally) the destroyer (of the Universe).

Sanskrit:

नमामि गौरीप्रियमव्ययं तं
नमामि नित्यंक्षरमक्षरं तम् ।
नमामि चिद्रूपममेयभावं
त्रिलोचनं तं शिरसा नमामि ॥४॥

Translation:

Namaami Gaurii-Priyam-Avyayam Tam
Namaami Nityam-Kssaram-Akssaram Tam |
Namaami Cid-Ruupam-Ameya-Bhaavam
Tri-Locanam Tam Shirasaa Namaami ||4||

Meaning:

4.1: I reverentially bow down to Him Who is dear to Gauri (Devi Parvati) and unchangeable (which also signifies that Shiva and Shakti are inseparably connected),
4.2: I reverentially bow down to Him Who is Eternal, and Who is the One Imperishable behind all the perishable,
4.3: I reverentially bow down (to Him) Who is of the nature of Consciousness and Whose Meditative State (symbolizing the all-pervading consciousness) is immeasurable,
4.4: To that Lord Who has Three Eyes, I reverentially bow down.
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In Hinduism, Shakambari (Sanskrit: शाकम्भरी) is an incarnation of Goddess Durga, consort to Shiva. She is the divine mother, called “The Bearer of the Greens.”

Sanskrit:

जनमेजय उवाच
विचित्रमिदमाख्यानं हरिश्चन्द्रस्य कीर्तितम् ।
शताक्षीपादभक्तस्य राजर्षेधार्मिकस्य  ॥१॥
शताक्षी सा कुतो जाता देवी भगवती शिवा ।
तत्कारणं वद मुने सार्थकं जन्म मे कुरु ॥२॥

Translation:

Janamejaya Uvaaca
Vicitram-Idam-Aakhyaanam Harishcandrasya Kiirtitam |
Shataakssii-Paada-Bhaktasya Raajarsse-Dhaarmikasya Ca ||1||
Shataakssii Saa Kuto Jaataa Devii Bhagavatii Shivaa |
Tat-Kaarannam Vada Mune Saarthakam Janma Me Kuru ||2||

Source: Pinterest

Meaning:

Janmejaya Said:
1.1: Wonderful is the Story of Harischandra, …
1.2: … who is a Devotee of the Lotus Feet of Devi Satakshias well as a Dharmic (Righteous) Rajarshi (a Rishi who is also a King),
2.1: Why is She, the Devi Bhagavati Shivaa (the Auspicious Goddess and the consort of Shiva) known as Satakshi (literally meaning Hundred Eyes)? …
2.2: … Tell me the Reason, O Muni, and make my Birth Meaningful (by the Divine touch of this Story).

Sanskrit:

को हि देव्या गुणाञ्छृण्वंस्तृप्तिं यास्यति शुद्धधीः ।
पदे पदेऽश्वमेधस्य फलमक्षय्यमश्नुते ॥३॥
व्यास उवाच
शृणु राजन्प्रवक्ष्यामि शताक्षीसम्भवं शुभम् ।
तवावाच्यं  मे किंचिद्देवीभक्तस्य विद्यते ॥४॥

Translation:

Ko Hi Devyaa Gunnaan.-Chrnnvams-Trptim Yaasyati Shuddhadhiih |
Pade Pade-[A]shvamedhasya Phalam-Akssayyam-Ashnute ||3||
Vyaasa Uvaaca
Shrnnu Raajan-Pravakssyaami Shataakssii-Sambhavam Shubham |
Tava-Avaacyam Na Me Kimcid-Devii-Bhaktasya Vidyate ||4||

Meaning:

3.1: Who can become Satisfied after listening to the Glory of the Devi, once his Mind become Pure?
(i.e. more one listens, more one wants to listen)
3.2: Each Step of the Story gives the Undecaying Fruit of Ashwamedha Yajna.
Vyasa said:
4.1: O KingListen to the Auspicious Story I am telling, about the origin of the name Shatakshi,
4.2: There is nothing to withhold from you; there is nothing which cannot be made known to a Devi Bhakta (Devotee) like you.

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Meenakshi is an Avatar of the Goddess Parvati, her consort being Shiva

Sanskrit:

उद्यद्भानुसहस्रकोटिसदृशां केयूरहारोज्ज्वलां
विम्बोष्ठीं स्मितदन्तपङ्क्तिरुचिरां पीताम्बरालङ्कृताम् ।
विष्णुब्रह्मसुरेन्द्रसेवितपदां तत्त्वस्वरूपां शिवां
मीनाक्षीं प्रणतोऽस्मि सन्ततमहं कारुण्यवारांनिधिम् ॥१॥

Translation:

Udyad-Bhaanu-Sahasra-Kotti-Sadrshaam Keyuura-Haaro[a-U]jjvalaam
Vimbo[a-O]sstthiim Smita-Danta-Pangkti-Ruciiraam Piita-Ambara-Alangkrtaam |
Vissnnu-Brahma-Surendra-Sevita-Padaam Tattva-Svaruupaam Shivaam
Miinaakssiim Prannato-[A]smi Santatam-Aham Kaarunnya-Vaaraam-Nidhim ||1||

Meaning:

1.1: (Salutations to Devi Meenakshi) Who shines like Thousand Million rising Suns, and is adorned with bracelets and garlands,
1.2: Who has beautiful Lips like Bimba Fruits, and beautiful rows of Teeth; Who smiles gently and is adorned with shining Yellow Garments,
1.3: Whose Lotus Feet is served by VishnuBrahma and the king of Suras (i.e. Indra Deva); Who is Auspicious and the embodiment of the essence of Existence,
1.4: I always bow down to Devi Meenakshi Who is an ocean of Compassion.

 

Source: Pinterest

Sanskrit:

मुक्ताहारलसत्किरीटरुचिरां पूर्णेन्दुवक्त्रप्रभां
शिञ्जन्नूपुरकिङ्किणीमणिधरां पद्मप्रभाभासुराम् ।
सर्वाभीष्टफलप्रदां गिरिसुतां वाणीरमासेवितां ।
मीनाक्षीं प्रणतोऽस्मि सन्ततमहं कारुण्यवारांनिधिम् ॥२॥

Translation:

Muktaa-Haara-Lasat-Kiriitta-Ruciraam Puurnne[a-I]ndu-Vaktra-Prabhaam
Shin.jan-Nuupura-Kingkinnii-Manni-Dharaam Padma-Prabhaa-Bhaasuraam |
Sarva-Abhiisstta-Phala-Pradaam Giri-Sutaam Vaannii-Ramaa-Sevitaam |
Miinaakssiim Prannato-[A]smi Santatam-Aham Kaarunnya-Vaaraam-Nidhim ||2||

Meaning:

2.1: (Salutations to Devi Meenakshi) Whose crown is adorned with shining Garlands of Pearls, and Whose Face shines with the splendour of Full Moon,
2.2: Whose Feet is adorned with jingling Anklets decorated with small Bells and Gems, and Who radiates the splendour of Pure Lotus,
2.3: Who grants all Wishes (of Her Devotees), Who is the daughter of the Mountain, and Who is accompanied by Vaani (Devi Saraswati) and Ramaa (Devi Lakshmi),
2.4: I always bow down to Devi Meenakshi Who is an ocean of Compassion.

Sanskrit:

श्रीविद्यां शिववामभागनिलयां ह्रीङ्कारमन्त्रोज्ज्वलां
श्रीचक्राङ्कितबिन्दुमध्यवसतिं श्रीमत्सभानायिकाम् ।
श्रीमत्षण्मुखविघ्नराजजननीं श्रीमज्जगन्मोहिनीं ।
मीनाक्षीं प्रणतोऽस्मि सन्ततमहं कारुण्यवारांनिधिम् ॥३॥


Translation:

Shriividyaam Shiva-Vaama-Bhaaga-Nilayaam Hriingkaara-Mantro[a-U]jjvalaam
Shriicakra-Angkita-Bindu-Madhya-Vasatim Shriimat-Sabhaa-Naayikaam |
Shriimat-Ssannmukha-Vighnaraaja-Jananiim Shriimaj-Jagan-Mohiniim |
Miinaakssiim Prannato-[A]smi Santatam-Aham Kaarunnya-Vaaraam-Nidhim ||3||

Meaning:

3.1: (Salutations to Devi Meenakshi) Who is the embodiment of Sri Vidya and resides as the left-half of Shiva; Whose form shines with the Hrimkara Mantra,
3.2: Who resides in the center of Sri Chakra as the Bindu, and Who is the venerable presiding Goddess of the assembly of Devas,
3.3: Who is the revered Mother of Shanmukha (Kartikeya) and Vighnaraja (Ganesha), and Who is the great Enchantress of the World,
3.4: I always bow down to Devi Meenakshi Who is an ocean of Compassion.

DISCLAIMER:
 All images, designs or videos on this page are copyright of their respective owners. We don’t own have these images/designs/videos. We collect them from search engine and other sources to be used as ideas for you. No copyright infringement is intended. If you have reason to believe that one of our content is violating your copyrights, please do not take any legal action as we are trying to spread the knowledge. You can contact us directly to be credited or have the item removed from the site.

The Stotras on Devi Radharani are sung by the devotees of Radha-Krishna.

Sanskrit:

श्रीनारायण उवाच
राधा रासेश्वरी रासवासिनी रसिकेश्वरी ।
कृष्णाप्राणाधिका कृष्णप्रिया कृष्णस्वरूपिणी ॥१॥

Translation:

Shriinaaraayanna Uvaaca
Raadhaa Raaseshvarii Raasavaasinii Rasikeshvarii |
Krssnnaapraannaadhikaa Krssnnapriyaa Krssnnasvaruupinnii ||1||

Meaning:

Sri Narayana said:
1.1: (The sixteen names of Radharani are) RadhaRaaseshwariRaasavasiniRasikeshwari, …
1.2: … KrishnapranadhikaKrishnapriyaKrishna Swarupini, …

Sanskrit:

कृष्णवामाङ्गसम्भूता परमानन्दरूपिणी ।
कृष्णा वृन्दावनी वृन्दा वृन्दावनविनोदिनी ॥२॥

Translation:

Krssnnavaamaanggasambhuutaa Paramaanandaruupinnii |
Krssnnaa Vrndaavanii Vrndaa Vrndaavanavinodinii ||2||
(The sixteen names of Radharani continued)

Source: Pinterest

Meaning:

2.1: … Krishna Vamanga SambhutaParamanandarupini, …
2.2: … KrishnaaVrindavaniVrindaaVrindavana Vinodini,

Sanskrit:

चन्द्रावली चन्द्रकान्ता शरच्चन्द्रप्रभानना ।
नामान्येतानि साराणि तेषामभ्यन्तराणि  ॥३॥

Translation:

Candraavalii Candrakaantaa Sharaccandraprabhaananaa |
Naamaany-Etaani Saaraanni Tessaam-Abhyantaraanni Ca ||3||
(The sixteen names of Radharani continued)

Meaning:

3.1: … ChandravaliChandrakantaSharacchandra Prabhanana (Sharat Chandra Prabhanana),
3.2: These (sixteen) Names, which are the essence are included in those (thousand names),

Sanskrit:

राधेत्येवं  संसिद्धौ राकारो दानवाचकः ।
स्वयं निर्वाणदात्री या सा राधा परिकिर्तिता ॥४॥

Translation:

Raadhe[a-I]tye[a-I]vam Ca Samsiddhau Raakaaro Daana-Vaacakah |
Svayam Nirvaanna-Daatrii Yaa Saa Raadhaa Parikirtitaa ||4||

Meaning:

4.1: (The first name) Radha points towards Samsiddhi (Moksha), and the Ra-kara is expressive of Giving (hence Radha means the giver of Moksha),
4.2: She Herself is the giver of Nirvana (Moksha) (through devotion to Krishna); She Who is proclaimed as Radha (is indeed the giver of Moksha by drowning the devotees in the divine sentiment of Raasa),

Sanskrit:

रासेश्वरस्य पत्नीयं तेन रासेश्वरी स्मृता ।
रासे  वासो यस्याश्च तेन सा रासवासिनी ॥५॥

Translation:

Raase[a-I]shvarasya Patniiyam Tena Raaseshvarii Smrtaa |
Raase Ca Vaaso Yasyaash-Ca Tena Saa Raasavaasinii ||5||

Meaning:

5.1: She is the consort of the Raasheswara (Lord of Raasa) (referring to Krishna in the divine dance of Raasa in Vrindavana), hence She is known as Raasheswari,
5.2: She abides in Raasa (i.e. Immersed in the devotional sentiment of Raasa), hence She is known as Raasavasini (whose mind is always immersed in Raasa)

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 All images, designs or videos on this page are copyright of their respective owners. We don’t own have these images/designs/videos. We collect them from search engine and other sources to be used as ideas for you. No copyright infringement is intended. If you have reason to believe that one of our content is violating your copyrights, please do not take any legal action as we are trying to spread the knowledge. You can contact us directly to be credited or have the item removed from the site.

Sanskrit:

महायोगपीठे तटे भीमरथ्या
वरं पुण्डरीकाय दातुं मुनीन्द्रैः ।
समागत्य तिष्ठन्तमानन्दकन्दं
परब्रह्मलिङ्गं भजे पाण्डुरङ्गम् ॥१॥

Translation:

Mahaa-Yoga-Piitthe Tatte Bhiimarathyaa
Varam Punnddariikaaya Daatum Muni-[I]indraih |
Samaagatya Tisstthantam-Aananda-Kandam
Parabrahma-Linggam Bhaje Paanndduranggam ||1||

Meaning:

1.1 (Salutations to Sri Panduranga) In the Seat of Great Yoga (Maha Yoga Peetha) (i.e. at Pandharpur) by the bank of river Bheemarathi (has come to Panduranga),
1.2: (He has come) to give Boons to Pundarika; (He has come) along with the great Munis,
1.3: Having arrived He is standing like a Source of Great Bliss (of Parabrahman),
1.4: I Worship that Panduranga, Who is the veritable Image (Lingam) of Parabrahman.

 

Source: Pinterest

Sanskrit:

तडिद्वाससं नीलमेघावभासं
रमामन्दिरं सुन्दरं चित्प्रकाशम् ।
परं त्विष्टिकायां समन्यस्तपादं
परब्रह्मलिङ्गं भजे पाण्डुरङ्गम् ॥२॥

Translation:

Taddid-Vaasasam Niila-Meghaava-Bhaasam
Ramaa-Mandiram Sundaram Cit-Prakaasham |
Param Tv[u]-Issttikaayaam Sama-Nyasta-Paadam
Parabrahma-Linggam Bhaje Paanndduranggam ||2||

Meaning:

2.1 (Salutations to Sri Panduranga) Whose garments are shining like lightning streaks against His Blue Cloud-like shining Form,
2.2: Whose Form is the Temple of Ramaa (Devi Lakshmi), Beautiful, and a visible manifestation of Consciousness,
2.3: Who is Supremebut (now) standing on a Brick placing both His Feet on it,
2.4: I Worship that Panduranga, Who is the veritable Image (Lingam) of Parabrahman.

Sanskrit:

प्रमाणं भवाब्धेरिदं मामकानां
नितम्बः कराभ्यां धृतो येन तस्मात् ।
विधातुर्वसत्यै धृतो नाभिकोशः
परब्रह्मलिङ्गं भजे पाण्डुरङ्गम् ॥३॥

Translation:

Pramaannam Bhava-Abdher-Idam Maamakaanaam
Nitambah Karaabhyaam Dhrto Yena Tasmaat |
Vidhaatur-Vasatyai Dhrto Naabhi-Koshah
Parabrahma-Linggam Bhaje Paanndduranggam ||3||

Meaning:

3.1 (Salutations to Sri Panduranga) The measure of the Ocean of Worldly Existence is (up to) this (much only) for My(Devotees), …
3.2: … (Who seems to say) By holding His Waist with His Hands,
3.3: Who is holding the (Lotus) Flower Cup for the Vidhata (Brahma) Himself to Dwell,
3.4: I Worship that Panduranga, Who is the veritable Image (Lingam) of Parabrahman.

Sanskrit:

शरच्चन्द्रबिम्बाननं चारुहासं
लसत्कुण्डलाक्रान्तगण्डस्थलाङ्गम् ।
जपारागबिम्बाधरं कञ्जनेत्रं
परब्रह्मलिङ्गं भजे पाण्डुरङ्गम् ॥५॥

Translation:

Sharac-Candra-Bimba-[A]ananam Caaru-Haasam
Lasat-Kunnddala-[A]akraanta-Ganndda-Sthala-Anggam |
Japaa-Raaga-Bimba-Adharam Kan.ja-Netram
Parabrahma-Linggam Bhaje Paanndduranggam ||5||

Meaning:

5.1 (Salutations to Sri Panduranga) Whose Face reflects the Splendour of the Autumn Moon and has a Captivating Smile(playing over it),
5.2: (And) Whose Cheeks are possessed by the Beauty of the Shining Ear-Rings dancing over it,
5.3: Whose Lips are Red like Hibiscus and has the appearance of Bimba Fruits; (And) Whose Eyes are as Beautiful as the Lotus,
5.4: I Worship that Panduranga, Who is the veritable Image (Lingam) of Parabrahman.

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 All images, designs or videos on this page are copyright of their respective owners. We don’t own have these images/designs/videos. We collect them from search engine and other sources to be used as ideas for you. No copyright infringement is intended. If you have reason to believe that one of our content is violating your copyrights, please do not take any legal action as we are trying to spread the knowledge. You can contact us directly to be credited or have the item removed from the site.

The Eighteenth Adhyay is a supplementary summarization of the topics discussed before. In every chapter of Bhagavad-gita.

arjuna uvaca
sannyasasya maha-baho
tattvam icchami veditum
tyagasya ca hrsikesa
prthak kesi-nisudana


TRANSLATION

Arjuna said, O mighty-armed one, I wish to understand the purpose of renunciation [tyaga] and of the renounced order of life [sannyasa], O killer of the Kesi demon, Hrsikesa.

PURPOSE

 Actually, the Bhagavad-gita is finished in seventeen chapters. The Eighteenth Chapter is a supplementary summarization of the topics discussed before. In every chapter of Bhagavad-gita, Lord Krsna stresses that devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the ultimate goal of life. This same point is summarized in the Eighteenth Chapter as the most confidential path of knowledge. In the first six chapters, stress was given to devotional service: yoginam api sarvesam…

“Of all yogis or transcendentalists, one who always thinks of Me within himself is best.” In the next six chapters, pure devotional service and its nature and activity were discussed. In the third six chapters, knowledge, renunciation, the activities of material nature and transcendental nature, and devotional service were described. It was concluded that all acts should be performed in conjunction with the Supreme Lord, summarized by the words om tat sat, which indicate Visnu, the Supreme Person.

In the third part of Bhagavad-gita, devotional service was established by the example of past acaryas and the Brahma-sutra, the Vedanta-sutra, which cites that devotional service is the ultimate purpose of life and nothing else. Certain impersonalists consider themselves monopolizers of the knowledge of Vedanta-sutra, but actually the Vedanta-sutra is meant for understanding devotional service, for the Lord, Himself is the composer of the Vedanta-sutra, and He is its knower. That is described in the Fifteenth Chapter. In every scripture, every Veda, devotional service is the objective. That is explained in Bhagavad-gita.

As in the Second Chapter, a synopsis of the whole subject matter was described, similarly, in the Eighteenth Chapter also the summary of all instruction is given. The purpose of life is indicated to be renunciation and attainment of the transcendental position above the three material modes of nature.

Arjuna wants to clarify the two distinct subject matters of Bhagavad-gita, namely renunciation (tyaga) and the renounced order of life (sannyasa). Thus he is asking the meaning of these two words.

Two words used in this verse to address the Supreme Lord-Hrsikesa and Kesinisudana-are significant. Hrsikesa is Krsna, the master of all senses, who can always help us attain mental serenity. Arjuna requests Him to summarize everything in such a way that he can remain equiposed. Yet he has some doubts, and doubts are always compared to demons.

He therefore addresses Krsna as Kesinisudana. Kesi was a most formidable demon who was killed by the Lord; now Arjuna is expecting Krsna to kill the demon of doubt.

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In the Fourth Adhyay, it is said that a person faithful to a particular type of worship gradually becomes elevated to the stage of knowledge.

arjuna uvaca
ye sastra-vidhim utsrjya
yajante sraddhayanvitah
tesam nistha tu ka krsna
sattvam aho rajas tamah

Arjuna said, O Krsna, what is the situation of one who does not follow the principles of scripture but worships according to his own imagination? Is he in goodness, in passion or in ignorance?

PURPOSE

In the Fourth Chapter, thirty-ninth verse, it is said that a person faithful to a particular type of worship gradually becomes elevated to the stage of knowledge and attains the highest perfectional stage of peace and prosperity. In the Sixteenth Chapter, it is concluded that one who does not follow the principles laid down in the scriptures is called an asura, demon, and one who follows the scriptural injunctions faithfully is called a deva, or demigod.

Now, if one, with faith, follows some rules which are not mentioned in the scriptural injunctions, what is his position? This doubt of Arjuna is to be cleared by Krsna. Are those who create some sort of God by selecting a human being and placing their faith in him worshiping in goodness, passion or ignorance? Do such persons attain the perfectional stage of life?

Is it possible for them to be situated in real knowledge and elevate themselves to the highest perfectional stage? Do those who do not follow the rules and regulations of the scriptures but who have faith in something and worship gods and demigods and men attain success in their effort? Arjuna is putting these questions to Krsna.

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 All images, designs or videos on this page are copyright of their respective owners. We don’t own have these images/designs/videos. We collect them from search engine and other sources to be used as ideas for you. No copyright infringement is intended. If you have reason to believe that one of our content is violating your copyrights, please do not take any legal action as we are trying to spread the knowledge. You can contact us directly to be credited or have the item removed from the site.